Browsing Masters Degrees (Institute for Wine Biotechnology) by Subject "Brandy"
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- ItemThe deletion and overexpression of two esterase genes, IAH1 and TIP1, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine their effects on the aroma and flavour of wine and brandy(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12) Hignett, Jason Satch; Du Toit, M.; Pretorius, I. S.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology. Institute for Wine Biotechnology .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: No single chemical constituent can be accredited with giving wine and brandy their overall aroma and flavour. The aroma and flavour of wine and brandy are rather attributed to a number of chemical constituents reacting together and it is these reactions that give the beverage its character. Certain chemicals within wine and brandy do, however, make larger contributions to the flavour. These include the esters, terpenes and volatile acids, although others also exist. Esters are a large group of volatile compounds with variable aroma and flavour characteristics, including banana-like (isoamyl acetate), apple-like (ethyl caproate) and chemical/solvent-like (ethyl acetate). Esters are produced as secondary metabolites during the conversion of sugar to ethanol and are formed when an alcohol binds with a fatty acid. Chemically, ester metabolism is well documented and understood; however, much work still needs to be done on a genetic level. The yeast strain used during fermentation is one of the most important factors contributing to the type and quantity of esters produced. This is due to differences in genetic makeup. The metabolism of esters is controlled largely on a genetic level, with numerous genes being involved. The alcohol acetyltransferase genes are involved in ester anabolism, whilst esterase genes are involved in ester catabolism. Esterases have a negative effect on the overall level of esters within an alcoholic beverage, as they are capable of reducing the number of esters and are thus capable of altering the beverage's aroma and flavour profile. The IAH1 and the TIP1 gene products are believed to encode for two such esterases. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the IAH1 and TIP1 genes to the level of esters in both wine and brandy. This was accomplished by using two approaches. Firstly, the above genes were disrupted using a polymerise chain reaction (PCR)-generated disruption cassette homologous to either the IAH1 or the TIP1 gene. These cassettes were integrated into the industrial wine yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain VIN13. The integrations were verified by Southern blot analysis to produce yeasts VIN13-~IAH1 and VIN13-~TIP1; however, only a single copy of each was disrupted. Secondly, the IAH1 and the TIP1 genes were cloned from S. cerevisiae using PCR into plasmid pj between the phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator, producing plasmids pJ-IOE1 and pJ-TOE1. The PGK1 promoter has previously been shown to constitutively express genes at high levels. These new constructs were then used as template for PCR to produce two overexpression cassettes, one for IAH1 and the other for TlP1. These cassettes were integrated into S. cerevisiae VIN13 and verified by Southern blot analysis to produce strains VIN13-IOE1 and VIN13-TOE1. The above yeast strains including VIN13 were used for the production of wines and base wines from Colombard must. Reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR) confirmed that the VIN13-IOE1 and VIN13-TOE1 strains overexpressed the appropriate gene at a higher level than the control VIN13 strain. The VIN13-AIAH1 disrupted strain showed no difference in expression level to that of the control strain, whilst VIN13-ATIP1 showed lower levels of expression than that of the control strain. VIN13-IOE1 behaved as expected, with a decrease of between 30% and 60% in the total ester level in the wine and base wine respectively, a 30% decrease in the total acid level and no change in the higher alcohol level. The VIN13-AIAH1 strain showed no difference to the control wine, most likely as this strain still expressed the IAH1 gene at levels consistent with the control strain. VIN13-TOE1 behaved in an unexpected manner - instead of hydrolysing esters, it appeared to produce them. This increase in the total ester level was most noticeable during distillation, when a 20% increase took place. Another unexpected occurrence was a large decline in the total acid level, with acetic acid being the most significant contributor, decreasing by up to 78%. This is a very favourable finding, as acetic acid is a known spoilage molecule and is a cause of sluggish/stuck fermentations. VIN13-ATIP1 behaved in an opposite manner to VIN13-TOE1, with higher total acid levels and slightly decreased total ester levels, especially during distillation. Neither affected the total higher alcohol levels. Sensorially, the only significant difference in the wine samples was for the fruity flavour. A panel of judges distinguished that VIN13-TOE1 was fruitier than the other wines, with VIN13-ATIP1 being the least fruity. This study again proves the significant impact that a single gene can have on the chemical makeup of wine and brandy. The relatively simple genetic alteration of an organism can drastically change and improve not only the organoleptic properties of the organism, but its viability as well. These alterations can produce more favourable organisms with more desirable characteristics for the fermenting beverage industry to produce products of higher quality and better suitability.
- ItemManipulating the levels of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate formation during the production of wine and brandy(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12) Bayly, Jennifer Carr,1977-; Du Toit, M.; Pretorius, I. S.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology. Institute for Wine Biotechnology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The production of wine is a complex process, which involves the conversion of sugar in grape must to ethanol, carbon dioxide and other byproducts. The principal organism in winemaking is yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important due to its ability to survive winemaking conditions, its GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and the favourable flavours it imparts during the winemaking process. However, due to the demands of the consumer and the emergence of sophisticated wine markets, a demand is developing for specialised yeast strains with enhanced and new oenological properties. For these reasons, research into the contribution of wine yeast to the aroma bouquet as well the influence of wine or brandy maturation in wood on the aroma bouquet is important for consumer demands to be met. The fruity aroma of wine is associated with esters, which are produced during the alcoholic fermentation by yeast. Important acetate esters in wine and brandy are ethyl acetate, which has a fruity, solvent-like aroma, and isoamyl acetate, which has a banana-like aroma. These esters are produced through the action of acetyltransferases (AATases), which catalyse the reaction between a higher alcohol and acyl Coenzyme A. Esters are mainly a product of alcoholic fermentation. However, their concentration changes during wood maturation and it has been found that the concentration of acetate esters can increase during the maturation period. In this study, the aim was to investigate the influence of AATase I and AATase II, which are encoded by the ATF1 and ATF2 genes respectively, on the aroma bouquet of wine and brandy. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to clone the ATF2 gene from a commercial wine yeast strain and to overexpress this gene in a commercial wine yeast strain and in a wine yeast strain that already has the A TF1 gene overexpressed. Disruption cassettes were also designed in order to disrupt the ATF1 and ATF2 genes in a commercial wine yeast strain. The resultant recombinant wine yeast strains were used for the production of wine and brandy. GC analyses and tasting trials were conducted to determine the effect of the overexpression or disruption of these genes on the aroma bouquet of wine. The results obtained indicated that there are differences in the aroma bouquet of wine and brandy when changes are made in gene expression. The results indicated that the A TF1 gene plays a large role in the production of ethyl and isoamyl acetate. When this gene was overexpressed, the level of ethyl acetate was 5.6-fold more than that of the control and the level of isoamyl acetate was 3.5-fold higher than that of the control. However, no increase in ethyl acetate or isoamyl acetate was observed when the A TF2 gene was overexpressed. An increase in 2-phenylethyl acetate and diethyl succinate was observed in brandy, although there was a decrease in total ester concentration. A decrease in acetic acid was also observed in the brandy produced, which could be an indication of ester production. Similarly, no increase in ethyl acetate or isoamyl acetate was observed in the wine or brandy produced when both the ATF1 and ATF2 genes were overexpressed in a single yeast. Once again, a marked decrease was observed in acetic acid concentration in both the wine and brandy. In conclusion, it is clear that changes in gene expression can change the aroma profile of wine or brandy. However, the role of the ATF2 gene still remains unclear and further studies are needed to clarify its role in yeast. Future studies involving the effect of wood maturation on ester concentration will also be of importance, so that the winemaker or distiller can make a product that suits the ever-changing market.