Browsing by Author "Wiysonge, Charles S."
Now showing 1 - 20 of 66
Results Per Page
- ItemThe acceptability of three vaccine injections given to infants during a single clinic visit in South Africa(BioMed Central, 2016) Tabana, Hanani; Dudley, Lilian; Knight, Stephen; Cameron, Neil; Mahomed, Hassan; Goliath, Charlyn; Eggers, Rudolf; Wiysonge, Charles S.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) has increased the number of antigens and injections administered at one visit. There are concerns that more injections at a single immunisation visit could decrease vaccination coverage. We assessed the acceptability and acceptance of three vaccine injections at a single immunisation visit by caregivers and vaccinators in South Africa. Methods: A mixed methods exploratory study of caregivers and vaccinators at clinics in two provinces of South Africa was conducted. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using questionnaires as well as observations of the administration of three-injection vaccination sessions. Results: The sample comprised 229 caregivers and 98 vaccinators. Caregivers were satisfied with the vaccinators’ care (97 %) and their infants receiving immunisation injections (93 %). However, many caregivers, (86 %) also felt that three or more injections were excessive at one visit. Caregivers had limited knowledge of actual vaccines provided, and reasons for three injections. Although vaccinators recognised the importance of informing caregivers about vaccination, they only did this sometimes. Overall, acceptance of three injections was high, with 97 % of caregivers expressing willingness to bring their infant for three injections again in future visits despite concerns about the pain and discomfort that the infant experienced. Many (55 %) vaccinators expressed concern about giving three injections in one immunisation visit. However, in 122 (95 %) observed three-injection vaccination sessions, the vaccinators administered all required vaccinations for that visit. The remaining seven vaccinations were not completed because of vaccine stock-outs. Conclusions: We found high acceptance by caregivers and vaccinators of three injections. Caregivers’ poor understanding of reasons for three injections resulted from limited information sharing by vaccinators for caregivers. Acceptability of three injections may be improved through enhanced vaccinator-caregiver communication, and improved management of infants’ pain. Vaccinator training should include evidence-informed ways of communicating with caregivers and reducing injection pain. Strategies to improve acceptance and acceptability of three injections should be rigorously evaluated as part of EPI’s expansion in resource-limited countries.
- ItemAchieving the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2007-09) Wiysonge, Charles S.; Young, T.; Volmink, J.To the Editor: The UN has released a mid-term report on progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), eight pro-poor goals contained in the Millennium Declaration of 2000, to be achieved by 2015. It paints a gloomy picture of health in sub-Saharan Africa. Child mortality rates declined globally, but the improvement was uneven, with sub-Saharan Africa recording the highest rate and the slowest pace of progress. In 1990 and 2005 in sub-Saharan Africa, 185 and 166 children respectively died, mainly from preventable causes, before their 5th birthday for every 1 000 live births, a mere 10% reduction in 16 years.
- ItemAntiviral efficacy and safety of abacavir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy as first-line treatment of HIV-infected children and adolescents : a systematic review protocol(BioMed Central, 2014-08) Adetokunboh, Olatunji O.; Schoonees, Anel; Wiysonge, Charles S.Abstract Background: Abacavir is one of the recommended nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for the treatment of HIV infections among children and adolescents. However, there are concerns that the antiviral efficacy of abacavir might be low when compared to other NRTIs especially among children. There are also concerns that abacavir use may lead to serious adverse events such as hypersensitivity reactions and has potential predisposition to developing cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We plan to do a systematic review to evaluate the antiviral efficacy and safety of abacavir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy as first-line treatment of HIV-infected children aged between 3 months and 18 years, compared with other NRTIs. We will search Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases for eligible studies regardless of language or publication status. We will check the reference lists of included studies, search relevant conference proceedings, email the authors of included studies and also look for unpublished and ongoing trials in prospective clinical trial registries. Two authors will independently screen search outputs, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias in included studies. All disagreements will be resolved by discussion and consensus. Where data allow, we will conduct meta-analysis for similar types of participants, study designs, interventions, and outcome measures. If the results are statistically homogeneous, we will use the fixed-effect model; otherwise, we will use the random-effects model and explore the reasons for heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity will be assessed with the Chi-squared test and quantified with the I-squared statistic. Discussion: The findings will be useful to policy makers and programme managers to inform treatment and management of HIV in children and adolescents and to point out research gaps for future research. Trial registration: This review is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42014009157.
- ItemBeta‐blockers for hypertension(John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Cochrane Collaboration, 2017) Wiysonge, Charles S.; Bradley, H. A.; Volmink, J.; Mayosi, B. M.; Opie, L. H.Background: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown longterm beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review initially published in 2007 and updated in 2012. Objectives: To assess the effects of beta-blockers on morbidity and mortality endpoints in adults with hypertension. Search methods: The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to June 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), and ClinicalTrials.gov. We checked reference lists of relevant reviews, and reference lists of studies potentially eligible for inclusion in this review, and also searched the the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 06 July 2015. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year of duration, which assessed the effects of beta-blockers compared to placebo or other drugs, as first-line therapy for hypertension, on mortality and morbidity in adults. Data collection and analysis: We selected studies and extracted data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by consensus. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and conducted fixed-effect or random-effects meta-analyses, as appropriate.We also used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. GRADE classifies the certainty of evidence as high (if we are confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of effect), moderate (if the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of effect), low (if the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of effect), and very low (if we are very uncertain about the estimate of effect). Main results: Thirteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. They compared beta-blockers to placebo (4 RCTs, 23,613 participants), diuretics (5 RCTs, 18,241 participants), calcium-channel blockers (CCBs: 4 RCTs, 44,825 participants), and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (3 RCTs, 10,828 participants). These RCTs were conducted between the 1970s and 2000s and most of them had a high risk of bias resulting from limitations in study design, conduct, and data analysis. There were 40,245 participants taking beta-blockers, threequarters of them taking atenolol. We found no outcome trials involving the newer vasodilating beta-blockers (e.g. nebivolol). There was no difference in all-cause mortality between beta-blockers and placebo (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.11), diuretics or RAS inhibitors, but it was higher for beta-blockers compared to CCBs (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.14). The evidence on mortality was of moderate-certainty for all comparisons. Total CVD was lower for beta-blockers compared to placebo (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.97; low-certainty evidence), a reflection of the decrease in stroke (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.96; low-certainty evidence) since there was no difference in coronary heart disease (CHD: RR 0.93, 95%CI 0.81 to 1.07; moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of beta-blockers on CVDwas worse than that of CCBs (RR 1.18, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.29; moderate-certainty evidence), but was not different fromthat of diuretics (moderate-certainty) or RAS inhibitors (low-certainty). In addition, there was an increase in stroke in beta-blockers compared to CCBs (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.40; moderate-certainty evidence) and RAS inhibitors (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53; moderate-certainty evidence). However, there was little or no difference in CHD between beta-blockers and diuretics (low-certainty evidence), CCBs (moderate-certainty evidence) or RAS inhibitors (low-certainty evidence). In the single trial involving participants aged 65 years and older, atenolol was associated with an increased CHD incidence compared to diuretics (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.32). Participants taking beta-blockers were more likely to discontinue treatment due to adverse events than participants taking RAS inhibitors (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.54; moderate-certainty evidence), but there was little or no difference with placebo, diuretics or CCBs (low-certainty evidence). Authors’ conclusions: Most outcome RCTs on beta-blockers as initial therapy for hypertension have high risk of bias. Atenolol was the beta-blocker most used. Current evidence suggests that initiating treatment of hypertension with beta-blockers leads to modest CVD reductions and little or no effects on mortality. These beta-blocker effects are inferior to those of other antihypertensive drugs. Further research should be of high quality and should explore whether there are differences between different subtypes of beta-blockers or whether beta-blockers have differential effects on younger and older people.
- ItemBurden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990–2017 : results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017(Elsevier, 2019-10) Gouda, Hebe N.; Charlson, Fiona; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Ahmadzada, Sanam; Ferrari, Alize J.; Erskine, Holly; Leung, Janni; Santamauro, Damian; Lund, Crick; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Harris, Meredith; Achoki, Tom; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Stein, Dan J.; Whiteford, HarveyBackground: Although the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be dominated by infectious diseases, countries in this region are undergoing a demographic transition leading to increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To inform health system responses to these changing patterns of disease, we aimed to assess changes in the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 to 2017. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to analyse the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)—with crude counts as well as all-age and age-standardised rates per 100000 population—with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We examined changes in burden between 1990 and 2017, and differences across age, sex, and regions. We also compared the observed NCD burden across countries with the expected values based on a country’s Socio-demographic Index. Findings: All-age total DALYs due to NCDs increased by 67·0% between 1990 (90·6 million [95% UI 81·0–101·9]) and 2017 (151·3 million [133·4–171·8]), reflecting an increase in the proportion of total DALYs attributable to NCDs (from 18·6% [95% UI 17·1–20·4] to 29·8% [27·6–32·0] of the total burden). Although most of this increase can be explained by population growth and ageing, the age-standardised DALY rate (per 100000 population) due to NCDs in 2017 (21757·7 DALYs [95% UI 19 377·1–24380·7]) was almost equivalent to that of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (26491·6 DALYs [25165·2–28129·8]). Cardiovascular diseases were the second leading cause of NCD burden in 2017, resulting in 22·9 million (21·5–24·3) DALYs (15·1% of the total NCD burden), after the group of disorders categorised as other NCDs (28·8 million [25·1–33·0] DALYs, 19·1%). These categories were followed by neoplasms, mental disorders, and digestive diseases. Although crude DALY rates for all NCDs have decreased slightly across sub-Saharan Africa, age-standardised rates are on the rise in some countries (particularly those in southern sub-Saharan Africa) and for some NCDs (such as diabetes and some cancers, including breast and prostate cancer). Interpretation: NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa are posing an increasing challenge for health systems, which have to date largely focused on tackling infectious diseases and maternal, neonatal, and child deaths. To effectively address these changing needs, countries in sub-Saharan Africa require detailed epidemiological data on NCDs.
- ItemCitation classics in systematic reviews and meta-analyses : who wrote the top 100 most cited articles?(Public Library of Science, 2013) Uthman, Olalekan A.; Okwundu, Charles I.; Young, Taryn; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Clarke, AileenBackground Systematic reviews of the literature occupy the highest position in currently proposed hierarchies of evidence. The aims of this study were to assess whether citation classics exist in published systematic review and meta-analysis (SRM), examine the characteristics of the most frequently cited SRM articles, and evaluate the contribution of different world regions. Methods The 100 most cited SRM were identified in October 2012 using the Science Citation Index database of the Institute for Scientific Information. Data were extracted by one author. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the association between years since publication, numbers of authors, article length, journal impact factor, and average citations per year. Results Among the 100 citation classics, published between 1977 and 2008, the most cited article received 7308 citations and the least-cited 675 citations. The average citations per year ranged from 27.8 to 401.6. First authors from the USA produced the highest number of citation classics (n=46), followed by the UK (n=28) and Canada (n=15). The 100 articles were published in 42 journals led by the Journal of the American Medical Association (n=18), followed by the British Medical Journal (n=14) and The Lancet (n=13). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between number of authors (Spearman’s rho=0.320, p=0.001), journal impact factor (rho=0.240, p=0.016) and average citations per year. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between average citations per year and year since publication (rho = -0.636, p=0.0001). The most cited papers identified seminal contributions and originators of landmark methodological aspects of SRM and reflect major advances in the management of and predisposing factors for chronic diseases. Conclusions Since the late 1970s, the USA, UK, and Canada have taken leadership in the production of citation classic papers. No first author from low or middle-income countries (LMIC) led one of the most cited 100 SRM.
- ItemThe Cochrane Corner in the SAMJ : summaries of Cochrane systematic reviews for evidence-informed practice(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Kredo, Tamara; Young, Taryn; Wiysonge, Charles S.; McCaul, Michael; Volmink, JamesThis editorial introduces a regular contribution from Cochrane South Africa (http://www.mrc.ac.za/cochrane/cochrane.htm) to the South African Medical Journal, which will be called the ‘Cochrane Corner’. Our contribution takes the form of technical summaries of Cochrane systematic reviews handpicked for their relevance to South Africa and the African region. Our goal is to help ensure that the high-quality evidence in Cochrane reviews reaches a wider audience.
- ItemA comparative evaluation of PDQ-Evidence(BioMed Central, 2018-03-15) Johansen, Marit; Rada, Gabriel; Rosenbaum, Sarah; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Motaze, Nkengafac Vilyen; Opiyo, Newton; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Ding, Yunpeng; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Oxman, Andrew D.Background: A strategy for minimising the time and obstacles to accessing systematic reviews of health system evidence is to collect them in a freely available database and make them easy to find through a simple ‘Google-style’ search interface. PDQ-Evidence was developed in this way. The objective of this study was to compare PDQ-Evidence to six other databases, namely Cochrane Library, EVIPNet VHL, Google Scholar, Health Systems Evidence, PubMed and Trip. Methods: We recruited healthcare policy-makers, managers and health researchers in low-, middle- and highincome countries. Participants selected one of six pre-determined questions. They searched for a systematic review that addressed the chosen question and one question of their own in PDQ-Evidence and in two of the other six databases which they would normally have searched. We randomly allocated participants to search PDQ-Evidence first or to search the two other databases first. The primary outcomes were whether a systematic review was found and the time taken to find it. Secondary outcomes were perceived ease of use and perceived time spent searching. We asked open-ended questions about PDQ-Evidence, including likes, dislikes, challenges and suggestions for improvements. Results: A total of 89 people from 21 countries completed the study; 83 were included in the primary analyses and 6 were excluded because of data errors that could not be corrected. Most participants chose PubMed and Cochrane Library as the other two databases. Participants were more likely to find a systematic review using PDQ-Evidence than using Cochrane Library or PubMed for the pre-defined questions. For their own questions, this difference was not found. Overall, it took slightly less time to find a systematic review using PDQ-Evidence. Participants perceived that it took less time, and most participants perceived PDQ-Evidence to be slightly easier to use than the two other databases. However, there were conflicting views about the design of PDQ-Evidence. Conclusions: PDQ-Evidence is at least as efficient as other databases for finding health system evidence. However, using PDQ-Evidence is not intuitive for some people.
- ItemConvalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID‐19(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2020-07-16) Nnaji, C. A.; Iwu, C. J.; Ndwandwe, D. E.; Jordan, P.; Wiysonge, Charles S.Convalescent plasma is being considered as a potential therapy for COVID‐19. We highlight and contextualise the findings of a recent Cochrane rapid review that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin transfusion in the treatment of people with COVID‐19. The review found low‐certainty evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of convalescent plasma. As the novel coronavirus continues to spread in South Africa (SA), convalescent plasma may offer a therapeutic ray of hope for mitigating the morbidity and mortality burdens of the disease. Further investigation of the clinical benefits of the therapy in well-designed studies is needed to provide more evidence that will guide COVID-19 treatment decision-making in the SA context.
- ItemCOVID-19 and routine childhood immunization in Africa : leveraging systems thinking and implementation science to improve immunization system performance(Elsevier, 2020-06-24) Adamu, Abdu A.; Jalo, Rabiu I.; Habonimana, Desire; Wiysonge, Charles S.One of the routine health services that is being disrupted by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Africa is childhood immunization. This is because the immunization system relies on functioning health facilities and stable communities to be effective. Its disruption increases the risk of epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases, which could increase child mortality. Therefore, policymakers must quickly identify robust and context-specific strategies to rapidly scale-up routine immunization in order to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on their national immunization performance. To achieve this, we propose a paradigm shift towards systems thinking and use of implementation science in immunization decision-making. Systems thinking can inform a more nuanced and holistic understanding of the interrelationship between COVID-19, its control strategies, and childhood immunization. Tools like causal loop diagrams can be used to explicitly illustrate the systems structure by identifying feedback loops. Once mapped and leverage points for interventions have been identified, implementation science can be used to guide the rapid uptake and utilization of multifaceted evidence-based innovations in complex practice settings. As Africa re-strategizes for the post-2020 era, these emerging fields could contribute significantly in accelerating progress towards universal access to vaccines for all children on the continent despite COVID-19.
- ItemA cross sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding seasonal influenza and influenza vaccination among diabetics in Pretoria, South Africa(Elsevier, 2017-11-07) Olatunbosun, Olawale D.; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; Wiysonge, Charles S.Background: In South Africa, inﬂuenza vaccination is recommended to all diabetics. However, vaccinationcoverage among diabetics remains low. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes,and practices among peoplewith diabetes in Pretoria regardingseasonalinﬂuenza and inﬂuenza vaccination.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus patients whoattended diabetic clinics in two major tertiary hospitals in Pretoria, South Africa from October toDecember 2015. The pilot-tested questionnaire consists of 32 quantitative questions that covered seasonalinﬂuenza and inﬂuenza vaccination in terms of the patient’s demographics, medical history and knowledge,attitudes and practices.Results: A total of 292 completed questionnaires were received with a response rate of 70.0%. Of these, 162participants (55.5%) believed that inﬂuenza is the same as common cold. While 96 (32.9%) participants wereawarethatthey were at higherrisk of complicationsof inﬂuenza,only 86 (29.5%) participantsconsidered vac-cination as an effective means in preventing seriousinﬂuenza-relatedcomplication.Even though 167 (57.2%)participants had heard of the vaccine to prevent inﬂuenza, only 84 (28.8%) participants were previously vac-cinated. Multivariate analysis shows that participants with good attitude score for inﬂuenza vaccinationwere 18.4 times more likely to be vaccinated compared with those with poor attitude score (OR =18.4,95%CI. 5.28–64.10, p = .001). Among those previously vaccinated, advice from their doctors (82/84, 97.6%)was the main factor encouraging vaccination. Top reasons given by participants who had never been vacci-nated before (208/292, 71.2%) include use of alternative protection (107/208, 51.4%) and that vaccination isnot necessary because ﬂu is just a minor illness (93/208, 44.7%).Conclusion: Uptake of seasonal vaccination among diabetics in Pretoria is low. Level of knowledge and per-ception are the main barriers to vaccination. Health care provider’s advice may be an important key predictorof previous inﬂuenza vaccination and they should continue to educate and encourage all diabetics to get vac-cinated for inﬂuenza at least once yearly.
- ItemCurrent knowledge and future research directions on fecal bacterial patterns and their association with asthma(Frontiers Media, 2016) Claassen-Weitz, Shantelle; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Machingaidze, Shingai; Thabane, Lehana; Horsnell, William G. C.; Zar, Heather J.; Nicol, Mark P.; Kaba, MamadouENGLISH SUMMARY : Asthma is a complex respiratory condition that involves interplay between genetic predisposition, environmental, and immunological factors (Edwards et al., 2012). It is considered to be one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting ~300 million people (Masoli et al., 2004), and causing an estimated 250,000 deaths annually (Bateman et al., 2008). Furthermore, because of an increased Westernized lifestyle and urbanization in developing countries, it is estimated that by 2025 the global burden of asthma will increase by 100 million people (Masoli et al., 2004).
- ItemDelivery arrangements for health systems in low-income countries : an overview of systematic reviews(John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Cochrane Collaboration, 2017) Ciapponi, Agustin; Lewin, Simon; Herrera, Cristian A.; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Rada, Gabriel; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Bastias, Gabriel; Dudley, Lilian; Flottorp, Signe; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Marti, Sebastian Garcia; Glenton, Claire; Okwundu, Charles I.; Penaloza, Blanca; Suleman, Fatima; Oxman, Andrew D.Background: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services. Objectives: To provide an overview of the available evidence from up‐to‐date systematic reviews about the effects of delivery arrangements for health systems in low‐income countries. Secondary objectives include identifying needs and priorities for future evaluations and systematic reviews on delivery arrangements and informing refinements of the framework for delivery arrangements outlined in the review. Methods: We searched Health Systems Evidence in November 2010 and PDQ‐Evidence up to 17 December 2016 for systematic reviews. We did not apply any date, language or publication status limitations in the searches. We included well‐conducted systematic reviews of studies that assessed the effects of delivery arrangements on patient outcomes (health and health behaviours), the quality or utilisation of healthcare services, resource use, healthcare provider outcomes (such as sick leave), or social outcomes (such as poverty or employment) and that were published after April 2005. We excluded reviews with limitations important enough to compromise the reliability of the findings. Two overview authors independently screened reviews, extracted data, and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We prepared SUPPORT Summaries for eligible reviews, including key messages, 'Summary of findings' tables (using GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence), and assessments of the relevance of findings to low‐income countries. Main results: We identified 7272 systematic reviews and included 51 of them in this overview. We judged 6 of the 51 reviews to have important methodological limitations and the other 45 to have only minor limitations. We grouped delivery arrangements into eight categories. Some reviews provided more than one comparison and were in more than one category. Across these categories, the following intervention were effective; that is, they have desirable effects on at least one outcome with moderate‐ or high‐certainty evidence and no moderate‐ or high‐certainty evidence of undesirable effects.
- ItemEffectiveness of the female condom in preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections : a systematic review and meta-analysis(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-03-12) Wiyeh, Alison B.; Mome, Ruth K. B.; Mahasha, Phetole W.; Kongnyuy, Eugene J.; Wiysonge, Charles S.Background: The effectiveness of female condoms for preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains inconclusive. We examined the effects of female condoms on the acquisition of HIV and STIs. Methods: We searched four databases, two trial registries, and reference lists of relevant publications in October 2018 and updated our search in February 2020. We screened search output, evaluated study eligibility, and extracted data in duplicate; resolving differences through discussion. We calculated the effective sample size of cluster randomised trials using an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0·03. Data from similar studies were combined in a meta-analysis. We performed a non-inferiority analysis of new condoms relative to marketed ones using a non-inferiority margin of 3%. We assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. Results: We included fifteen studies of 6921 women. We found that polyurethane female condoms (FC1) plus male condoms may be as effective as male condoms only in reducing HIV acquisition (1 trial, n = 149 women, RR 0.07, 95%CI 0.00–1.38; low-certainty evidence). However, the use of FC1 plus male condoms is superior to male condoms alone in reducing the acquisition of gonorrhoea (2 trials, n = 790, RR 0.59, 95%CI 0.41–0.86; high-certainty evidence) and chlamydia (2 trials, n = 790, RR 0.67, 95%CI 0.47–0.94; high-certainty evidence). Adverse events and failure rates of FC1 were very low and decreased during follow up. Although the functionality of newer female condoms (Woman’s, Cupid, Pheonurse, Velvet, and Reddy) may be non-inferior to FC2, there were no available studies assessing their efficacy in preventing HIV and STIs. Conclusion: The use of female plus male condoms is more effective than use of male condoms only in preventing STIs and may be as effective as the male condom only in preventing HIV. There is a need for well conducted studies assessing the effects of newer female condoms on HIV and STIs.
- ItemThe effects of shifting tasks from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel for providing antiretroviral therapy to people living with HIV : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Mbeye, Nyanyiwe M.; Kredo, Tamara; Wiysonge, Charles S.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Shifting selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) tasks from specialised healthcare workers to those with shorter or less formal training has been implemented in resource-limited settings to alleviate critical shortages of human resources for health. However, the specifics of shifting ART dispensing from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel have not been addressed in a systematic review, although this can potentially increase access to ART. We will assess the effects of shifting dispensing and distribution of ART and adherence assessment from pharmacy to non- pharmacy personnel in low and middle-income countries. Methods and analysis: We will search PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, WHO Global Health Library and relevant grey literature for eligible controlled trials. Two authors will screen the search output, select eligible studies, assess risk of bias and extract data from included studies, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. We will perform meta-analysis using both fixed and random effects models, investigate clinical and statistical heterogeneity, and assess our confidence in the overall evidence using standard Cochrane methods, including GRADE.
- ItemEfficacy and safety of abacavir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy as first-line treatment of HIV infected children and adolescents : a systematic review and meta-analysis(BioMed Central, 2015-10) Adetokunboh, Olatunji O.; Schoonees, Anel; Balogun, Tolulope A.; Wiysonge, Charles S.Background: Abacavir is one of the recommended nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for the treatment of HIV infections among children and adolescents. However, there are concerns that the antiviral efficacy of abacavir might be low when compared to other NRTIs especially among children. There are also concerns that abacavir use may lead to serious adverse events such as hypersensitivity reactions and has potential predisposition to developing cardiovascular diseases Methods: We searched four electronic databases, four conference proceedings and two clinical trial registries in August 2014, without language restrictions. Experimental and observational studies with control groups that examined the efficacy and safety of abacavir-containing regimens in comparison with other NRTIs as first-line treatment for HIV-infected children and adolescents aged between one month and eighteen years were eligible. Two authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies using a pre-specified, standardised data extraction form and validated risk of bias tools. We also assessed the quality of evidence per outcome with the GRADE tool. Results: We included two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and two analytical cohort studies with a total of 10,595 participants. Among the RCTs we detected no difference in virologic suppression after a mean duration of 48 weeks between abacavir- and stavudine-containing regimens (2 trials; n = 326: RR 1.28; 95 % CI 0.67–2.42) with significant heterogeneity (P = 0.02; I2 = 81 %). We also found no significant differences between the two groups for adverse events and death. After five years of follow-up, virologic suppression improved with abacavir (1 trial; n = 69: RR 1.96; 95 % CI 1.11–3.44). For cohort studies, we detected that the virologic suppression activity of abacavir was less effective than stavudine in both the lopinavir/ritonavir (1 study, n= 2165: RR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.67–0.92) and efavirenz sub-groups (1 study, n = 3204: RR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.67–0.92) respectively. The quality of evidence from RCTs was moderate for virologic suppression but low for death and adverse events, while that of cohort studies was low for all three these outcomes. Conclusions: Available evidence showed little or no difference between abacavir-containing regimen and other NRTIs regarding efficacy and safety when given to children and adolescents as a first-line antiretroviral therapy.
- ItemThe efficacy and safety of complete pericardial drainage by means of intrapericardial fibrinolysis for the prevention of complications of pericardial effusion : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Kakia, Aloysious; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Ochodo, Eleanor A.; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Ristic, Arsen D.; Mayosi, Bongani M.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Intrapericardial fibrinolysis has been proposed as a means of preventing complications of pericardial effusion such as cardiac tamponade, persistent and recurrent pericardial effusion, and pericardial constriction. There is a need to understand the efficacy and safety of this procedure because it shows promise. Methods and analysis: We aim to assess the effects of intrapericardial fibrinolysis in the treatment of pericardial effusion. We will search PubMed, the Cochrane Library, African Journals online, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Trip database, Clinical trials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for studies that evaluate the efficacy and/or safety of complete pericardial fluid drainage by intrapericardial fibrinolysis irrespective of study design, geographical location, language, age of participants, aetiology of pericarditis or types of fibrinolytics. Two authors will do the search independently, screen the search outputs for potentially eligible studies and assess whether the studies meet the inclusion criteria. Discrepancies between the two authors will be resolved through discussion and arbitration by a third author. Data from the selected studies shall be extracted using a standardised data collection form which will be piloted before use. The methodological quality of studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tools for assessing risk of bias for experimental studies and non-randomised studies, respectively. The primary meta- analysis will use random effects models due to expected interstudy heterogeneity. Dichotomous data will be analysed using relative risk and continuous with data mean differences, both with 95% CIs.
- ItemElectronic and postal reminders for improving immunisation coverage in children : protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis(BMJ Publishing Group, 2015) Chachou, Martel J.; Mukinda, Fidele K.; Motaze, Villyen; Wiysonge, Charles S.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Worldwide, suboptimal immunisation coverage causes the deaths of more than one million children under five from vaccine-preventable diseases every year. Reasons for suboptimal coverage are multifactorial, and a combination of interventions is needed to improve compliance with immunisation schedules. One intervention relies on reminders, where the health system prompts caregivers to attend immunisation appointments on time or re-engages caregivers who have defaulted on scheduled appointments. We undertake this systematic review to investigate the potential of reminders using emails, phone calls, social media, letters or postcards to improve immunisation coverage in children under five. Methods and analysis: We will search for published and unpublished randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index, WHOLIS, Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Platform. We will conduct screening of search results, study selection, data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment in duplicate, resolving disagreements by consensus. In addition, we will pool data from clinically homogeneous studies using random-effects meta-analysis; assess heterogeneity of effects using the χ2 test of homogeneity; and quantify any observed heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. Ethics and dissemination: This protocol does not need approval by an ethics committee because we will use publicly available data, without directly involving human participants. The results will provide updated evidence on the effects of electronic and postal reminders on immunisation coverage, and we will discuss the applicability of the findings to low and middle-income countries. We plan to disseminate review findings through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation at relevant conferences. In addition, we will prepare a policymaker-friendly summary using a validated format (eg, SUPPORT Summary) and disseminate this through social media and email discussion groups.
- ItemEpidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa (1997 – 2015): a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Nglazi, Mweete D.; Joubert, Jane D.; Stein, Dan J.; Lund, Crick; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Vos, Theo; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Roomaney, Rifqah A.; Muhwava, Lorrein S.; Bradshaw, DebbieENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease and disability globally and in South Africa. Epidemiological data for MDD are essential to estimate the overall disease burden in a country. The objective of the systematic review is to examine the evidence base for prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD in South Africa from 1997 to 2015. Methods and analysis: We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and other bibliographical databases. Articles published between January 1997 and December 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD. The secondary outcomes will be risk factors and selected populations for MDD. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. If a meta-analysis is not possible, the review findings will be presented narratively and in tables. Subgroup analyses will be conducted with subgroups defined by population group, rural/urban settings and study designs, if sufficient data are available.