Browsing by Author "Manley, M."
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- ItemChanges in the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of pinotage, cabernet sauvignon, chardonnay and chenin blanc wines during bottle ageing(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2005) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Gelderblom, W. C. A.; Manley, M.The effect of bottle ageing on the antioxidant activity of Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Chenin blanc wines, using the 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH0) scavenging assays, was determined. Storage at 0°C, 15°C or 30°C for a period of 12 months resulted in a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in both the total antioxidant activity (TAAAnTs and TAAoPPH) and the total phenol content of the wines. The antioxidant potency of the total phenols of most of the wines, which is a ratio of antioxidant activity to the total phenol content, also decreased. The total anthocyanins in the red wines decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) over 12 months except for storage at 0°C, while the flavanol content of the Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines increased up to nine months storage with a subsequent decrease to 12 months. The flavonol content of all the wines decreased, while only minor changes in their hydroxycinnamate content were observed during the storage period. Understanding the complexity of these reactions may provide clues for stabilising especially red wines to preserve the antioxidant activity without losing the beneficial effects of colouring and flavour development during bottle ageing.
- ItemCharacterisation of pinotage wine during maturation on different oak products(SASEV, 2008-01) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Du Toit, W.; Fourie, B.; Manley, M.The effect of oak contact on the phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and colour of Pinotage wines was investigated during maturation. Oak maturation included traditional treatments, such as new, second-fill and third-fill barrels, as well as alternative treatments (oak chips, staves, extract and dust) applied in old barrels over a period of 28 weeks. Oak maturation using traditional and alternative treatments improved the objective colour of Pinotage wine by decreasing the L* value. Losses in TAC caused by decreased concentrations of monomeric phenolic compounds (most anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids) during oak maturation were negated by increased concentrations of gallic acid and the formation of new oligomeric and polymeric pigments. Wine maturation in stainless steel containers also resulted in a decrease in anthocyanin content. The decrease in phenolic acid content for wines matured in stainless steel was less pronounced, while their flavan-3-ol content remained stable. The new-barrel treatment had the most pronounced effect on all parameters. Oak maturation can be used for the production of Pinotage wine when the retention of TAC is a high priority.
- ItemClimatic region and vine structure : effect on pinotage wine phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity and colour(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2006) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Van Schalkwyk, D.; Manley, M.The phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and colour of Pinotage wines of the 2001, 2002 and 2003 vintages were investigated, using spectrophotometric, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), free radical scavenging and objective colour analyses. Grapes were harvested from grapevines in three climatic regions ranging from cool to warm, with bush (20- and 30-cm trunk height) and trellised (30- and 60-cm trunk heights) vine treatments, on several vineyard sites in each climatic area. Climatic region had a significant effect on the content of several phenolic compounds; the concentration of anthocyanin monoglucosides, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and tartaric acid esters of hydroxycinnamic acids generally increased as the climatic region becomes cooler, while concentrations of acylated derivatives and free hydroxycinnamic acids decreased. Wines made from bush vines contained higher concentrations of flavonols, gallic acid and flavan-3-ols than those from trellised vines, but lower concentrations of some anthocyanin monoglucosides and acylated derivatives, as well as non-coloured polymers. These trends resulted in differences in TAC and objective colour parameters, although the different vintages did not show the same trends in all cases. More vintages should therefore be investigated to clarify these effects. Wines from the cool climatic regions and from bush vines were generally darker coloured, with higher TAC than those from the warm climatic regions and bush vines, respectively. High TAC, therefore, coincided with higher colour quality. Variations in TAC were partly explained by trends for individual phenolic compounds, although unknown compounds played a major role.
- ItemEffect of oxygenation during maturation on phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity, colour and sensory quality of pinotage wine(SASEV, 2008-10) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Manley, M.The effect of oxygenation on the phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), colour and sensory quality was investigated during the maturation of Pinotage wines. Oxygenation was carried out in discrete monthly doses at two oxygen dosages (2.5 and 5.0 mg O2/L/month) for zero, two, four and six months. Oxygenation at the lower dosage for two months had beneficial effects on the colour and sensory quality of Pinotage wine. The higher oxygen dosage (all times) and longer times (all dosages) had a substantial detrimental effect on the overall sensory quality of the wine. A decrease in the TAC of the wine was observed for all the treatment combinations, despite increased concentrations of gallic acid. During the following harvest, a modified oxygenation treatment, entailing 1.0 mg O2/L in discrete doses every two weeks for two months, was tested. It had little effect on the wine phenolic composition and was not detrimental to the TAC of the wine. The modified oxygenation protocol significantly reduced the berry/ plum intensity of the Pinotage wine without negatively affecting the overall sensory quality. Oxygen addition on a continuous basis may also be less detrimental to the TAC of the wine and provide improved sensory quality.
- ItemEvaluation of principal component analysis as a tool to design calibration sets for glycerol quantification in wine with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.(2007) Nieuwoudt, Helene; Prior, B. A.; Pretorius, I. S.; Manley, M.; Bauer, Florian
- ItemThe evaluation of the applicability of Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in the measurement of analytical parameters in must and wine(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2001) Manley, M.; Van Zyl, A.; Wolf, E. E. H.Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy can be used as a rapid method to measure the percentage of sugar and to discriminate between different must samples in terms of their free amino nitrogen (FAN) values. It can also be used as a rapid method to discriminate between Chardonnay wine samples in terms of their malolactic fermentation (MLF) status. By monitoring the conversion of malic to lactic acid, the samples could be classified on the basis of whether MLF has started, is in progress or has been completed. Furthermore, FT-NIR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid method to discriminate between table wine samples in terms of their ethyl carbamate (EC) content. It is claimed that high concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wine can pose a health threat and has to be monitored by determining the EC content in relation to the regulatory limits set by authorities. For each of the above-mentioned parameters QUANT+™ methods were built and calibrations were derived and it was found that a very strong correlation existed in the sample set for the FT-NIR spectroscopic predictions of the percentage of sugar (r = 0.99, SEP= 0.31 °Brix). However, the correlation for the FAN predictions (r = 0.602, SEP= 272.1 g.L-1), malic acid (r = 0.64, SEP= 1.02 g.L-1), lactic acid (r = 0.61, SEP= 1.35 g.L-1) and EC predictions (r = 0.47, SEP = 3.6 μg.kg·1) were not good. The must samples could be classified in terms of their FAN values when Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) diagnostics and validation were applied as a discriminative method, with recognition rates exceeding 80% in all cases. When SIMCA diagnostics and validation were applied to the Chardonnay and EC wine samples, recognition rates exceeding 88% and 80% respectively were obtained. These results therefore confirm that this method is successful in discriminating between samples.
- ItemIdentification of wine yeast strains with FT-NIRS and effect of spectral variation due to sample preparation and repeated analyses(2007) Muller, C. A.; Manley, M.; Lambrechts, M.; Pretorius, I. S.; Nieuwoudt, Helene
- ItemMaceration before and during fermentation : effect on pinotage wine phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity and objective colour parameters(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2006) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Marais, J.; Manley, M.Low-temperature maceration treatments (1, 2 and 4 days at 10 and 15°C) before fermentation and juice/skin mixing treatments (punching-down, pumping-over and rotor action every hour and every 3 hours) during fermentation were investigated in terms of their effects on Pinotage wine phenolic composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and colour over three vintages (2000 to 2002). Results for pre-fermentation maceration were not consistent between vintages. Very few significant differences in the phenolic content, TAC and objective colour parameters were observed between the control wines and wines subjected to different pre-fermentation maceration treatments. Pre-fermentation maceration, especially at 15°C, resulted in wines with increased vitisin A content. Improvement of wine quality when using pre-fermentation maceration treatments at 10°C was noted previously, while no detrimental effect on the wine TAC was observed. The pumping-over treatment yielded wines with lower TAC and phenol content, as well as less favourable objective colour values, indicating that the punching-down or rotor treatment would be preferred. Although mixing at hourly intervals yielded a higher content of some phenolic compounds compared to the 3-hour interval mixing, mixing frequency did not affect the TAC of the wine. The objective colour parameters, h* and b*, were slightly lower at the higher mixing frequency in 2002 indicating a shift in the direction of a magenta hue.
- ItemPhenolic compounds : a review of their possible role as in vivo antioxidants of wine(South African Society for Enology and Viticulture, 2002) De Beer, D.; Joubert, E.; Gelderblom, W. C. A.; Manley, M.Phenolic compounds are a large and complex group of chemical constituents found in red and white wines which not only affect their quality, but also contribute to their beneficial health effects. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds are important in determining their role as protective agents against free radical-mediated disease processes. This review discusses the principles of oxidative stress and the resultant cellular damage caused by lipid peroxidation in vivo. Different groups of wine phenolic compounds are detailed, with specific reference to their in vitro antioxidant activity and their relative potency as free radical scavengers. The absorption and bioavailability of phenolic compounds from dietary sources is discussed.
- ItemPrincipal component analysis applied to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the design of calibration sets for glycerol prediction models in wine and for the detection and classification of outlier samples(2004) Nieuwoudt, Helene; Prior, B. A.; Pretorius, I. S.; Manley, M.; Bauer, FlorianPrincipal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the main sources of variation in the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 329 wines of various styles. The FT-IR spectra were gathered using a specialized WineScan instrument. The main sources of variation included the reducing sugar and alcohol content of the samples, as well as the stage of fermentation and the maturation period of the wines. The implications of the variation between the different wine styles for the design of calibration models with accurate predictive abilities were investigated using glycerol calibration in wine as a model system. PCA enabled the identification and interpretation of samples that were poorly predicted by the calibration models, as well as the detection of individual samples in the sample set that had atypical spectra (i.e., outlier samples). The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) approach was used to establish a model for the classification of the outlier samples. A glycerol calibration for wine was developed (reducing sugar content < 30 g/L, alcohol > 8% v/v) with satisfactory predictive ability (SEP = 0.40 g/L). The RPD value (ratio of the standard deviation of the data to the standard error of prediction) was 5.6, indicating that the calibration is suitable for quantification purposes. A calibration for glycerol in special late harvest and noble late harvest wines (RS 31-147 g/L, alcohol > 11.6% v/v) with a prediction error SECV = 0.65 g/L, was also established. This study yielded an analytical strategy that combined the careful design of calibration sets with measures that facilitated the early detection and interpretation of poorly predicted samples and outlier samples in a sample set. The strategy provided a powerful means of quality control, which is necessary for the generation of accurate prediction data and therefore for the successful implementation of FT-IR in the routine analytical laboratory.
- ItemPrincipal Component Analysis Applied to Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for the Design of Calibration Sets for Glycerol Prediction Models in Wine and for the Detection and Classification of Outlier Samples.(AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, USA, DC, 20036, 2004) Nieuwoudt, Helene; Prior, B. A.; Pretorius, I. S.; Manley, M.; Bauer, Florian