Browsing by Author "Louw, Quinette"
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- ItemCorrelation of the self-reported Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs score, clinical neurological examination and MR imaging in patients with lumbo-sacral radiculopathy(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2019-05-30) Tawa, Nassib; Diener, Ina; Louw, Quinette; Rhoda, AntheaBackground: Lumbo-sacral radiculopathy (LSR) is a common musculoskeletal disorder for which patients seek medical care and referrals for advanced imaging. However, accurate diagnosis remains challenging. Neuropathic pain screening questionnaires, clinical neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in the initial diagnosis. The utility of these tools in diagnosing LSR varies and their correlation has not been reported. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicentre, blinded design was used in six physiotherapy departments in Kenya. Each participant was blindly examined by three independent clinicians using the Self-Reported Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) score, clinical neurological examination (CNE) and MRI. Spearman’s rank coefficient (r) was used to examine the correlation between the three tests. Linear regression and odds ratios were used to establish correlations between socio-demographic, clinical and diagnostic parameters. The diagnostic accuracy of individual or combined sets of CNE tests in diagnosing LSR, with reference to MRI, was determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. Results: We enrolled 102 participants (44 males, 58 females; mean age: 44.7 years). Results indicated a significant positive correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.01) between S-LANSS, CNE and MRI among patients with low back and radiating leg symptoms. Positive agreement existed between combined neuro-conduction tests (sensory, motor and reflex) and neuro-dynamic tests (NDT). The NDT component of CNE (Straight Leg Raise Test [SLRT] and Femoral Nerve Stretch Test [FNST]) was significantly associated (P = 0.05) with MRI: patients who had positive NDT results had higher odds (8.3) for positive nerve root compromise on MRI versus those who had negative NDT results. Conclusion: This was the first study to investigate the correlation between S-LANSS, CNE and MRI in patients presenting with low back and radiating leg symptoms. Results indicated a significant positive correlation. The strongest correlations to MRI findings of LSR were firstly, NDT (SLRT and FNST); secondly, the S-LANSS score; and thirdly, the CNE components of motor power and deep tendon reflex. The clinical implication is that clinicians can confidently use the S-LANSS score and CNE to diagnose and make therapeutic decisions in LSR, when MRI is medically contra-indicated, unaffordable or unavailable.
- ItemThe development of a clinical management algorithm for early physical activity and mobilization of critically ill patients : synthesis of evidence and expert opinion and its translation into practice(Sage publishers, 2011-04) Hanekom, Susan; Gosselink, Rik; Dean, Elizabeth; Van Aswegen, Helena; Roos, Ronel; Ambrosino, Nicolino; Louw, QuinetteObjective: To facilitate knowledge synthesis and implementation of evidence supporting early physical activity and mobilization of adult patients in the intensive care unit and its translation into practice, we developed an evidence-based clinical management algorithm. Methods: Twenty-eight draft algorithm statements extracted from the extant literature by the primary research team were verified and rated by scientist clinicians (n¼7) in an electronic three round Delphi process. Algorithm statements which reached a priori defined consensus – semi-interquartile range <0.5 – were collated into the algorithm. Results: The draft algorithm statements were edited and six additional statements were formulated. The 34 statements related to assessment and treatment were grouped into three categories. Category A included statements for unconscious critically ill patients; Category B included statements for stable and cooperative critically ill patients, and Category C included statements related to stable patients with prolonged critical illness. While panellists reached consensus on the ratings of 94% (32/34) of the algorithm statements, only 50% (17/34) of the statements were rated essential.
- ItemDevelopment of a cost effective three-dimensional posture analysis tool : validity and reliability(BioMed Central, 2013-12) Brink, Yolandi; Louw, Quinette; Grimmer, Karen; Schreve, Kristiaan; Van der Westhuizen, Gareth; Jordaan, EsmeBackground: The lack of clear understanding of the association between sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain, might reflect invalid and/or unreliable posture measurement instruments. The psychometric properties of any new measurement instrument should be demonstrated prior to use for research or clinical purposes. This paper describes psychometric testing of a new three-dimensional (3D), portable, non-invasive posture analysis tool (3D-PAT), from sequential studies using a mannequin and high school students. Methods: The first study compared the 3D-(X-, Y- and Z-) coordinates of reflective markers placed on a mannequin using the 3D-PAT, and the Vicon motion analysis system. This study also tested the reliability of taking repeated measures of the 3D-coordinates of the reflective markers. The second study determined the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the 3D-PAT measurements of nine sitting postural angles of high school students undertaking a standard computing task. In both studies, concordance correlation coefficients and Intraclass correlation coefficients described test-retest reliability, whilst Pearson product moment correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated concurrent validity. Results: The 3D-PAT provides reliable and valid 3D measurements of five of the nine postural angles i.e. head flexion, neck flexion, cranio-cervical angle, trunk flexion and head lateral bending in adolescents undertaking a standard task. Conclusions: The 3D-PAT is appropriate for research and clinical settings to measure five upper quadrant postural angles in three dimensions. As a measurement instrument it can provide further understanding of the relationship between sitting posture, changes to sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain.
- ItemThe development of an evidence-based clinical checklist for the diagnosis of anterior knee pain(AOSIS Publishing, 2017) Leibbrandt, Dominique C.; Louw, QuinetteBackground: Anterior knee pain (AKP) or patellofemoral pain syndrome is common and may limit an individual’s ability to perform common activities of daily living such as stair climbing and prolonged sitting. The diagnosis is difficult as there are multiple definitions for this disorder and there are no accepted criteria for diagnosis. It is therefore most commonly a diagnosis that is made once other pathologies have been excluded. Objectives: The aim of this study was to create an evidence-based checklist for researchers and clinicians to use for the diagnosis of AKP. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in July 2016, and an evidence-based checklist was created based on the subjective and objective findings most commonly used to diagnose AKP. For the subjective factors, two or more of the systematic reviews needed to identify the factor as being important in the diagnosis of AKP. Results: Two systematic reviews, consisting of nine different diagnostic studies, were identified by our search methods. Diagnosis of AKP is based on the area of pain, age, duration of symptoms, common aggravating factors, manual palpation and exclusion of other pathologies. Of the functional tests, squatting demonstrated the highest sensitivity. Other useful tests include pain during stair climbing and prolonged sitting. The cluster of two out of three positive tests for squatting, isometric quadriceps contraction and palpation of the patella borders and the patella tilt test were also recommended as useful tests to include in the clinical assessment. Conclusion: A diagnostic checklist is useful as it provides a structured method for diagnosing AKP in a clinical setting. Research is needed to establish the causes of AKP as it is difficult to diagnose a condition with unknown aetiology.
- ItemThe effect of a workstation chair and computer screen height adjustment on neck and upper back musculoskeletal pain and sitting comfort in office workers(AOSIS Publishing, 2015-11-10) Van Vledder, Nicole; Louw, QuinetteENGLISH SUMMARY : Aims: To assess the effect of a vertical height adjustment of the chair and visual display unit (VDU) on work-related upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain (WRUQMP) and sitting comfort in office workers. The upper quadrant refers to the occiput, cervical and upper thoracic spine, including the clavicles and scapulae. Methods: A single subject (N = 1) study, in which the subject serves as her own control, was conducted using the ABC design. An ergonomic workstation adjustment of VDU and chair height was compared to the subject’s usual workstation settings. Pain and sitting comfort was measured using visual analogue scales (VAS). The subject was assessed over three four-week phases as she performed her typical VDU work. The results were compiled and tabulated. Results: Both the mean and variance in pain intensity decreased after the workstation intervention. A deterioration in sitting comfort was noted. Conclusion: The vertical height adjustment of the chair and visual display unit may have contributed to a decrease in work-related upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain in this subject. This safe, economical workstation intervention may be a practical management option for the computer user suffering from work-related upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain. Further research into the measurement of comfort whilst sitting at a computer workstation is recommended.
- ItemThe effect of McConnell taping on knee biomechanics : what is the evidence?(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-04) Leibbrandt, Dominique Claire; Louw, Quinette; Louw, Quinette; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. PhysiotherapyENGLISH ABSTRACT: This review aims to present the available evidence for the effect of McConnell taping on knee biomechanics in individuals with Anterior Knee Pain (AKP). Pubmed, Medline, Cinahl, Sportdiscus, Pedro and Science Direct electronic databases were searched from inception until September 2014. Experimental research into knee biomechanical or EMG outcomes of McConnell taping compared to no tape or placebo tape were included. Two reviewers completed the searches, selected the full text articles and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies. Authors were contacted for missing data. Eight heterogeneous studies with a total sample of 220 were included in this review. All of the studies had a moderate to low risk of bias and compared taping to no tape and/ or placebo tape. Pooling of data was possible for three outcomes; average knee extensor moment, average VMO/VL ratio and average VMO-VL onset timing. None of these outcomes revealed significant differences. The evidence is currently insufficient to justify the routine use of the McConnell Taping technique in the treatment of Anterior Knee Pain. There is a need for more evidence on the aetiological pathways of Anterior knee Pain; level one evidence and studies investigating other potential mechanisms of McConnell taping.
- ItemEffectiveness of resistance strength training in children and adolescents with ≥30% total body surface area : a systematic review(AOSIS Publishing, 2016) Brink, Yolandi; Brooker, Heather; Carstens, Emmari; Gissing, Cary A.; Langtree, Candice; Louw, QuinettePurpose: Children and adolescents with burn injuries are at risk of living with social, educational, physical and psychological impairments. The systematic review aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of resistance strength training on muscle strength and lean body mass (LBM) in children and adolescents with burn injuries. Method: Five databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials with an intervention defined as a supervised, individualised resistance exercise programme were sought. The outcomes included muscle strength and/or LBM. The PEDro scale was used to describe the methodological quality. Comparable data were combined using RevMan©. Results: Seven papers were included in the review with an average methodological appraisal score of 5.7/11. Comparable data were combined for muscle strength and LBM. The meta-analysis revealed no significant clinical difference between the exercise and standard care groups after 3 months of strength training for both muscle strength (p = 0.43) and LBM (p = 0.60). Conclusions: There is no conclusive evidence to support the benefit of strength training for children and adolescents with burns injuries in terms of muscle strength and LBM. However, it appears that isokinetic training might benefit children and adolescents with burns, but more studies investigating the effect of isokinetic training are required.
- ItemFall history and associated factors among adults living with HIV-1 in the Cape Winelands, South Africa : an exploratory investigation(Oxford University Press, 2019) Berner, Karina; Strijdom, Hans; Essop, M. Faadiel; Webster, Ingrid; Morris, Linzette; Louw, QuinetteBackground. People with HIV-1 (PWH) exhibit a high fall incidence and increased fracture risk. As little is known about fall frequency and associated factors in PWH residing in lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), we investigated fall frequency, bone quality, and factors associated with fall history in a South African cohort. Methods. Fifty PWH without obvious predisposing factors for mobility impairments attending 2 public primary care clinics in the Western Cape region participated. Demographic, clinical, and physical performance data were collected. Falls were assessed retrospectively over 12 months. Mobility and balance were evaluated using a physical performance battery. Bone mineral density was screened using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Associations between variables and falls grouping were analyzed using chi-square tests, t tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests, and effect sizes (ES) were calculated. Results. Thirty-four percent of PWH (median age, 36.6 years) reported falling during the past year, and 41.2% of fallers reported multiple falls. Fallers had more mobility problems (P = .013), higher fear of falling (P = .007), higher fracture history (P = .003), worse balance performance (P < .001), higher proportions of detectable viral loads (P = .021), and poorer bone quality (P = .040). Differences were of medium to large ES. Conclusions. This exploratory study is the first to show that relatively young South African PWH without obvious predisposing factors for gait and balance impairments experience falls. The observed fall-associated factors warrant further research using larger samples and longitudinal designs to ascertain fall predictors within this population.
- ItemKinematics and temporospatial parameters during gait from inertial motion capture in adults with and without HIV : a validity and reliability study(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2020-07-24) Berner, Karina; Cockcroft, John; Louw, QuinetteBackground: Inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based motion capture systems are gaining popularity for gait analysis outside laboratories. It is important to determine the performance of such systems in specific patient populations. We aimed to validate and determine within-day reliability of an IMU system for measuring lower limb gait kinematics and temporal–spatial parameters (TSP) in people with and without HIV. Methods: Gait was recorded in eight adults with HIV (PLHIV) and eight HIV-seronegative participants (SNP), using IMUs and optical motion capture (OMC) simultaneously. Participants performed six gait trials. Fifteen TSP and 28 kinematic angles were extracted. Intraclass correlations (ICC), root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error and Bland–Altman analyses were used to assess concurrent validity of the IMU system (relative to OMC) separately in PLHIV and SNP. IMU reliability was assessed during within-session retest of trials. ICCs were used to assess relative reliability. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and percentage SEM were used to assess absolute reliability. Results: Between-system TSP differences demonstrated acceptable-to-excellent ICCs (0.71–0.99), except for double support time and temporophasic parameters (< 0.60). All TSP demonstrated good mean absolute percentage errors (≤7.40%). For kinematics, ICCs were acceptable to excellent (0.75–1.00) for all but three range of motion (ROM) and four discrete angles. RMSE and bias were 0.0°–4.7° for all but two ROM and 10 discrete angles. In both groups, TSP reliability was acceptable to excellent for relative (ICC 0.75–0.99) (except for one temporal and two temporophasic parameters) and absolute (%SEM 1.58–15.23) values. Reliability trends of IMU-measured kinematics were similar between groups and demonstrated acceptable-to-excellent relative reliability (ICC 0.76–0.99) and clinically acceptable absolute reliability (SEM 0.7°–4.4°) for all but two and three discrete angles, respectively. Both systems demonstrated similar magnitude and directional trends for differences when comparing the gait of PLHIV with that of SNP. Conclusions: IMU-based gait analysis is valid and reliable when applied in PLHIV; demonstrating a sufficiently low precision error to be used for clinical interpretation (< 5° for most kinematics; < 20% for TSP). IMU-based gait analysis is sensitive to subtle gait deviations that may occur in PLHIV.
- ItemKnee movement patterns of injured and uninjured adolescent basketball players when landing from a jump : a case-control study(BioMed Central, 2006-03) Louw, Quinette; Grimmer, Karen; Vaughan, ChristopherBackground: A common knee injury mechanism sustained during basketball is landing badly from a jump. Landing is a complex task and requires good coordination, dynamic muscle control and flexibility. For adolescents whose coordination and motor control has not fully matured, landing badly from a jump can present a significant risk for injury. There is currently limited biomechanical information regarding the lower limb kinetics of adolescents when jumping, specifically regarding jump kinematics comparing injured with uninjured adolescents. This study reports on an investigation of biomechanical differences in landing patterns of uninjured and injured adolescent basketball players. Methods: A matched case-control study design was employed. Twenty-two basketball players aged 14–16 years participated in the study: eleven previously knee-injured and eleven uninjured players matched with cases for age, gender, weight, height and years of play, and playing for the same club. Six high-speed, three-dimensional Vicon 370 cameras (120 Hz), Vicon biomechanical software and SAS Version 8 software were employed to analyse landing patterns when subjects performed a "jump shot". Linear correlations determined functional relationships between the biomechanical performance of lower limb joints, and paired t-tests determined differences between the normalised peak biomechanical parameters. Results: The average peak vertical ground reaction forces between the cases and controls were similar. The average peak ground reaction forces between the cases and controls were moderately correlated (r = -0.47). The control (uninjured) players had significantly greater hip and knee flexion angles and significantly greater eccentric activity on landing than the uninjured cases (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The findings of the study indicate that players with a history of knee injuries had biomechanically compromised landing techniques when compared with uninjured players matched for gender, age and club. Descriptions (norms) of expected levels of knee control, proprioceptive acuity and eccentric strength relative to landing from a jump, at different ages and physical developmental stages, would assist clinicians and coaches to identify players with inappropriate knee performance comparable to their age or developmental stage.
- ItemMapping South African allied health primary care clinical guideline activity : establishing a stakeholder reference sample(BioMed Central, 2016-10-10) Dizon, Janine Margarita; Grimmer, Karen; Machingaidze, Shingai; McLaren, Pam; Louw, QuinetteENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: Little is known about allied health (AH) clinical practice guideline (CPG) activity in South Africa, and particularly in relation to primary health care (PHC). This paper reports on a scoping study undertaken to establish a reference framework, from which a comprehensive maximum variation sample could be selected. This was required to underpin robust sampling for a qualitative study aimed at understanding South African primary care AH therapy CPG activities. This paper builds on findings from the South African Guidelines Evaluation (Project SAGE) Flagship grant. Methods: South African government websites were searched for structures of departments and portfolios, and available CPGs. Professional AH association websites were searched for CPGs, purposively-identified key informants were interviewed, and CPGs previously identified for priority South African primary care conditions were critiqued for AH therapy involvement. Results: Key informants described potentially complex relationships between players who may be engaged in South African AH CPGs, in both public and private sectors. There were disability/rehabilitation portfolios at national and provincial governments, but no uniformity in provincial government organisation of, or support for, PHC AH services. There were no AH primary care therapy CPGs on government websites, although there was ‘clinical guidance’ in various forms on professional association websites. Only two CPGs of priority South African PHC conditions included mention of any AH therapy (physiotherapy for adult asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Conclusion: A comprehensive and wide-reaching stakeholder reference framework would be required in order to capture the heterogeneity of AH primary care CPG activity in South Africa. This should involve the voices of national and purposively-selected provincial governments, academic institutions, consultants, public sector managers and clinicians, private practitioners, professional associations, and private sector insurers. Provincial governments should be selected to reflect heterogeneity in local economics, population demographics and availability of university AH training programs. This investigation should aim to determine the areas of PHC in which AH are engaged.
- ItemNext generation clinical guidance for primary care in South Africa – credible, consistent and pragmatic(Public Library of Science, 2018-03-30) Machingaidze, Shingai; Grimmer, Karen; Louw, Quinette; Kredo, Tamara; Young, Taryn; Volmink, JimmyBackground: Agreed international development standards underpin high quality de novo clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). There is however, no international consensus on how high quality CPGs should ‘look’; or on whether high quality CPGs from one country can be viably implemented elsewhere. Writing de novo CPGs is generally resource-intensive and expensive, making this challenging in resource-poor environments. This paper proposes an alternative, efficient method of producing high quality CPGs in such circumstances, using existing CPGs layered by local knowledge, contexts and products. Methods: We undertook a mixed methods case study in South African (SA) primary healthcare (PHC), building on findings from four independent studies. These comprised an overview of international CPG activities; a rapid literature review on international CPG development practices; critical appraisal of 16 purposively-sampled SA PHC CPGs; and additional interrogation of these CPGs regarding how, why and for whom, they had been produced, and how they ‘looked’. Results: Despite a common aim to improve SA PHC healthcare practices, the included CPGs had different, unclear and inconsistent production processes, terminology and evidence presentation styles. None aligned with international quality standards. However many included innovative succinct guidance for end-users (which we classified as evidence-based summary recommendations, patient management tools or protocols). We developed a three-tiered model, a checklist and a glossary of common terms, for more efficient future production of better quality, contextually-relevant, locally-implementable SA PHC CPGs. Tier 1 involves transparent synthesis of existing high quality CPG recommendations; Tier 2 reflects local expertise to layer Tier 1 evidence with local contexts; and Tier 3 comprises tailored locally-relevant end-user guidance. Conclusion: Our model could be relevant for any resource-poor environment. It should reduce effort and costs in finding and synthesising available research evidence, whilst efficiently focusing scant resources on contextually-relevant evidence-based guidance, and implementation.
- ItemObjective impairments of gait and balance in adults living with HIV-1 infection : a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies(BioMed Central, 2017-08-01) Berner, Karina; Morris, Linzette; Baumeister, Jochen; Louw, QuinetteBackground: Gait and balance deficits are reported in adults with HIV infection and are associated with reduced quality of life. Current research suggests an increased fall-incidence in this population, with fall rates among middle-aged adults with HIV approximating that in seronegative elderly populations. Gait and postural balance rely on a complex interaction of the motor system, sensory control, and cognitive function. However, due to disease progression and complications related to ongoing inflammation, these systems may be compromised in people with HIV. Consequently, locomotor impairments may result that can contribute to higher-than-expected fall rates. The aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence regarding objective gait and balance impairments in adults with HIV, and to emphasize those which could contribute to increased fall risk. Methods: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. An electronic search of published observational studies was conducted in March 2016. Methodological quality was assessed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Narrative synthesis of gait and balance outcomes was performed, and meta-analyses where possible. Results: Seventeen studies were included, with fair to low methodological quality. All studies used clinical tests for gait-assessment. Gait outcomes assessed were speed, initiation-time and cadence. No studies assessed kinetics or kinematics. Balance was assessed using both instrumented and clinical tests. Outcomes were mainly related to center of pressure, postural reflex latencies, and timed clinical tests. There is some agreement that adults with HIV walk slower and have increased center of pressure excursions and -long loop postural reflex latencies, particularly under challenging conditions. Conclusions: Gait and balance impairments exist in people with HIV, resembling fall-associated parameters in the elderly. Impairments are more pronounced during challenging conditions, might be associated with disease severity, are not influenced by antiretroviral therapy, and might not be associated with peripheral neuropathy. Results should be interpreted cautiously due to overall poor methodological quality and heterogeneity. Locomotor impairments in adults with HIV are currently insufficiently quantified. Future research involving more methodological uniformity is warranted to better understand such impairments and to inform clinical decision-making, including fall-prevention strategies, in this population.
- ItemPatient perspectives about the healthcare of chronic musculoskeletal pain : three patient cases(AOSIS Publishing, 2016-05) Ernstzen, Dawn; Louw, Quinette; Hillier, SusanBackground: Consideration of the patient’s perspective in healthcare is important because it may inform holistic and contextually relevant management strategies. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore patients’ experiences and perspectives about their chronic musculoskeletal (CMSK) pain and its management in the private healthcare sector in South Africa. This work was done as a pilot study to test, adapt and finalize an interview schedule. Methods: A descriptive, qualitative study was conducted. The sampling was purposive. Three patients with CMSK pain were recruited to participate in in-depth individual interviews. The interviews were recorded and transcribed ensuring confidentiality. Inductive, thematic content analyses of the transcripts were undertaken. Initial codes were assigned and a code book developed, which was applied to the transcripts to develop categories and themes. Results: Four themes emerged from the data: (1) the participants sought understanding about the pain’s origin and the reason for pain persistence; (2) pain impacted their lives in multiple ways; (3) the participants depended on healthcare providers (HCP) for guidance and support; and (4) they had the option of acceptance of chronic pain. Conclusion: The participants’ knowledge about their health condition had important implications as it influenced their perspectives on pain and its management. The pain presented the participants with several challenges, which included developing an understanding about pain and coping with the impact of pain in their lives. HCPs were perceived to play an important role in empowering or disempowering the participants.
- ItemPhysical rehabilitation needs in the BRICS nations from 1990 to 2017 : cross-national analyses using data from the global burden of disease study(MDPI, 2020-06) Jesus, Tiago S.; Landry, Michel D.; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi; Kamalakannan, Sureshkumar; Britto, Raquel R.; Pogosova, Nana; Sokolova, Olga; Grimmer, Karen; Louw, QuinetteBackground: This study analyzes the current and evolving physical rehabilitation needs of BRICS nations (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China, South Africa), a coalition of large emergent economies increasingly important for global health. Methods: Secondary, cross-national analyses of data on Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Total physical rehabilitation needs, and those stratified per major condition groups are analyzed for the year 2017 (current needs), and for every year since 1990 (evolution over time). ANOVAs are used to detect significant yearly changes. Results: Total physical rehabilitation needs have increased significantly from 1990 to 2017 in each of the BRICS nations, in every metric analyzed (YLD Counts, YLDs per 100,000 people, and percentage of YLDs relevant to physical rehabilitation; all p < 0.01). Musculoskeletal & pain conditions were leading cause of physical rehabilitation needs across the BRICS nations but to varying degrees: from 36% in South Africa to 60% in Brazil. Country-specific trends include: 25% of South African needs were from HIV-related conditions (no other BRICS nation had more than 1%); India had both absolute and relative growths of pediatric rehabilitation needs (p < 0.01); China had an exponential growth in the per-capita needs from neurological and neoplastic conditions (p < 0.01; r2 = 0.97); Brazil had a both absolute and relative growth of needs coming from musculoskeletal & pain conditions (p < 0.01); and the Russian Federation had the highest neurological rehabilitation needs per capita in 2017 (over than three times those of India, South Africa or Brazil). Conclusions: total physical rehabilitation needs have been increasing in each of the BRICS nations, both in absolute and relative values. Apart from the common growing trend, each of the BRICS nations had own patterns for the amount, typology, and evolution of their physical rehabilitation needs, which must be taken into account while planning for health and physical rehabilitation programs, policies and resources.
- ItemPhysiotherapists’ awareness of risk of bone demineralisation and falls in people living with HIV : a qualitative study(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2021-04-13) Charumbira, Maria Y.; Berner, Karina; Louw, QuinetteBackground: Recent research has indicated a seemingly increased propensity for both falls and accelerated bone loss in people living with HIV (PLWH). Physiotherapists play a crucial role in optimising function and quality of life of PLWH through prevention of falls and reducing the harm that results. Aim: This study aimed to explore physiotherapists’ awareness of falls risk and accelerated bone demineralisation in PLWH and their perceptions of current falls prevention strategies in the care of PLWH in selected regions of sub- Saharan Africa. Method: An exploratory descriptive qualitative research method was employed to explore physiotherapists’ perceptions and experiences regarding bone health and falls in PLWH. In-depth semi-structured telephonic interviews were used to collect data from 21 physiotherapists working in primary HIV care. Transcribed interview data were coded in Atlas.ti.8® and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: The primary study revealed a lack of awareness by physiotherapists of falls risk and bone demineralisation in PLWH. As such, physiotherapists did not link falls or fractures to HIV or antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they did observe such events during their general patient assessments. However, in retrospect, some physiotherapists were able to recognise risk factors linked to falls in those with HIV. Current services for falls prevention, as perceived by the physiotherapists, were sub-optimal. Conclusion: Physiotherapists may need to be more aware of the potential risk of falls and bone demineralisation in PLWH and routinely assess for these phenomena in both older and younger PLWH.
- ItemThe postural stability of children with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders during one-leg stance : a feasibility study(AOSIS, 2018) Brink, Yolandi; Cockcroft, John; Seedat, Soraya; May, Philip; Kalberg, Wendy; Louw, QuinetteBackground: Postural control may be impaired in children with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The study assessed the protocol feasibility in terms of (1) recruiting children with FASD in a rural, small town; (2) using the measurement instruments in a real-life setting; (3) the one-leg standing (OLS) task and (4) presenting preliminary results on postural stability of children with and without FASD. Methods: Nine-year-old children diagnosed with and without FASD were invited to participate. Twenty-eight children performed OLS. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment, measurement instrument use and task instruction. Postural stability outcomes included standing duration, centre of pressure (COP) and body segment acceleration. Results: Participants recruitment was feasible in terms of the (1) ability to sample a reasonable participant number in a rural town setting and the capacity to increase the sample size if more schools are included in the sampling frame and (2) use of assent and consent forms that were appropriate for this population. The measurement instruments were user-friendly, cost-effective and time-efficient. Instructions for the task require amendment to address foot placement of the non-weight–bearing leg. There was a significant difference between cases and controls on mean COP velocity (p = 0.001) and the pelvis segment acceleration in the mediolateral direction (p = 0.01) and the anteroposterior direction (p= 0.027). The control children took longer to achieve postural control. The girls demonstrated a significant difference for the COP anteroposterior displacement (p = 0.008) and velocity (p = 0.049). Conclusions: The recruitment of children with and without FASD in a rural, small town and the administration of measurement instruments in a real-life, school-based setting was feasible. However, the verbal instructions for the task require revision. The male control group took longer to achieve postural control because the task was performed differently between the two groups. However, the case girls were slower to achieve postural control than control girls though performing the task similarly.
- ItemThe prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in a multiracial group of urban adolescent schoolchildren in the Cape Metropole area of Cape Town(MedPharm Publications, 2014-10) Van Niekerk, Sjan-Mari; Grimmer, Karen; Louw, QuinetteAbstract Objective: The objective was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in high school learners in the Cape Town area. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Setting: High schools in the Cape Metropole Area of the Western Cape. Subjects: A complex cluster sampling procedure was followed. Thirty-six students per school were selected from each randomly selected school. Thirteen- to 18-year-old pupils were eligible for inclusion. Outcome measures: Height and weight measurements. Results: The sample comprised 689 students. There were considerably more underweight adolescent boys than adolescent girls (17.3% boys to 9.9% girls), and double the frequency of overweight adolescent girls than adolescent boys (7.7% girls to 3.5% boys). The 14-year-old boys had the highest prevalence of underweight (55.2%), and the 17-year-old girls the highest prevalence of overweight (22%). The highest prevalence of obesity was found in 15-year-old boys (11.1%), who also demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of underweight (30.2%). Conclusion: This study reported on a substantial percentage of underweight adolescents (27.1%). Noteworthy levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls added to the substantial prevalence of underweight in adolescent boys. Africa has enough to contend with in respect of transmissible diseases, without additional lifestyle-based health burdens.
- ItemPrimary care clinical practice guidelines in South Africa : qualitative study exploring perspectives of national stakeholders(Biomed Central, 2017-08) Kredo, Tamara; Abrams, Amber; Young, Taryn; Louw, Quinette; Volmink, Jimmy; Daniels, KarenBackground Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are common tools in policy and clinical practice informing clinical decisions at the bedside, governance of health facilities, health insurer and government spending, and patient choices. South Africa’s health sector is transitioning to a national health insurance system, aiming to build on other primary health care initiatives to transform the previously segregated, inequitable services. Within these plans CPGs are an integral tool for delivering standardised and cost effective care. Currently, there is no accepted standard approach to developing, adapting or implementing CPGs efficiently or effectively in South Africa. We explored the current players; drivers; and the context and processes of primary care CPG development from the perspective of stakeholders operating at national level. Methods We used a qualitative approach. Sampling was initially purposeful, followed by snowballing and further sampling to reach representivity of primary care service providers. Individual in-depth interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. We used thematic content analysis to analyse the data. Results We conducted 37 in-depth interviews from June 2014–July 2015. We found CPG development and implementation were hampered by lack of human and funding resources for technical and methodological work; fragmentation between groups, and between national and provincial health sectors; and lack of agreed systems for CPG development and implementation. Some CPG contributors steadfastly work to improve processes aiming to enhance communication, use of evidence, and transparency to ensure credible guidance is produced. Many interviewed had shared values, and were driven to address inequity, however, resource gaps were perceived to create an enabling environment for commercial interests or personal agendas to drive the CPG development process. Conclusions Our findings identified strengths and gaps in CPG development processes, and a need for national standards to guide CPG development and implementation. Based on our findings and suggestions from participants, a possible way forward would be for South Africa to have a centrally coordinated CPG unit to address these needs and aspects of fragmentation by devising processes that support collaboration, transparency and credibility across sectors and disciplines. Such an initiative will require adequate resourcing to build capacity and ensure support for the delivery of high quality CPGs for South African primary care.
- ItemThe quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments(BioMed Central, 2011-05-13) Brink, Yolandi; Louw, Quinette; Grimmer-Somers, KarenAbstract. Background. Psychometric properties include validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Establishing the psychometric properties of an instrument which measures three-dimensional human posture are essential prior to applying it in clinical practice or research. Methods. This paper reports the findings of a systematic literature review which aimed to 1) identify non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) human posture-measuring instruments; and 2) assess the quality of reporting of the methodological procedures undertaken to establish their psychometric properties, using a purpose-build critical appraisal tool. Results Seventeen instruments were identified, of which nine were supported by research into psychometric properties. Eleven and six papers respectively, reported on validity and reliability testing. Rater qualification and reference standards were generally poorly addressed, and there was variable quality reporting of rater blinding and statistical analysis. Conclusions. There is a lack of current research to establish the psychometric properties of non-invasive 3D human posture-measuring instruments.