Browsing by Author "Huisamen, Barbara"
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- ItemAMP kinase activation and glut4 translocation in isolated cardiomyocytes(Clinics Cardive Publishing, 2010-04) Webste, Ingrid; Friedrich, Sven O.; Lochner, Amanda; Huisamen, BarbaraActivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) results in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation from the cytosol to the cell membrane, and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscles. This increased activation of AMPK can be stimulated by a pharmacological agent, AICAR (5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside), which is converted intracellularly into ZMP (5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamideribonucleosidephosphate), an AMP analogue. We utilised AICAR and ZMP to study GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in isolated cardiomyocytes. Adult ventricular cardiomyocytes were treated with AICAR or ZMP, and glucose uptake was measured via [3H]-2-deoxyglucose accumulation. PKB/Akt, AMPK and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation were detected by Western blotting or flow cytometry. AICAR and ZMP promoted AMPK phosphorylation. Neither drug increased glucose uptake but on the contrary, inhibited basal glucose uptake, although GLUT4 translocation from the cytosol to the membrane occurred. Using flow cytometry to detect the exofacial loop of the GLUT4 protein, we showed ineffective insertion in the membrane under these conditions. Supplementing with nitric oxide improved insertion in the membrane but not glucose uptake. We concluded that activation of AMPK via AICAR or ZMP was not sufficient to induce GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in isolated cardiomyocytes. Nitric oxide plays a role in proper insertion of the protein in the membrane but not in glucose uptake.
- ItemAMP kinase activation and glut4 translocation in isolated cardiomyocytes(http://www.cvja.co.za/index.php, 2010-03) Webster, Ingrid; Huisamen, Barbara; Lochner, Amanda; Friedrich, Sven O; Biomedical Sciences: Medical Physiology
- ItemAspalathin protects the heart against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating Nrf2 expression(MDPI, 2017) Dludla, Phiwayinkosi V.; Muller, Christo J. F.; Joubert, Elizabeth; Louw, Johan; Essop, M. Faadiel; Gabuza, Kwazi B.; Ghoor, Samira; Huisamen, Barbara; Johnson, RabiaAspalathin (ASP) can protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes against high glucose (HG)-induced shifts in myocardial substrate preference, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The protective mechanism of ASP remains unknown. However, as one of possible, it is well known that phytochemical flavonoids reduce oxidative stress via nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activation resulting in up-regulation of antioxidant genes and enzymes. Therefore, we hypothesized that ASP protects the myocardium against HG- and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating Nrf2 expression in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and diabetic (db/db) mice, respectively. Using an oxidative stress RT2 Profiler PCR array, ASP at a dose of 1 µM was demonstrated to protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes against HG-induced oxidative stress, but silencing of Nrf2 abolished this protective response of ASP and exacerbated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Db/db mice and their non-diabetic (db/+) littermate controls were subsequently treated daily for six weeks with either a low (13 mg/kg) or high (130 mg/kg) ASP dose. Compared to nondiabetic mice the db/db mice presented increased cardiac remodeling and enlarged left ventricular wall that occurred concomitant to enhanced oxidative stress. Daily treatment of mice with ASP at a dose of 130 mg/kg for six weeks was more effective at reversing complications than both a low dose ASP or metformin, eliciting enhanced expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes. These results indicate that ASP maintains cellular homeostasis and protects the myocardium against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes.
- ItemAtaxia telangiectasia mutated protein kinase : a potential master puppeteer of oxidative stress-induced metabolic recycling(Hindawi, 2021) Blignaut, Marguerite; Harries, Sarah; Lochner, Amanda; Huisamen, BarbaraENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated protein kinase (ATM) has recently come to the fore as a regulatory protein fulfilling many roles in the fine balancing act of metabolic homeostasis. Best known for its role as a transducer of DNA damage repair, the activity of ATM in the cytosol is enjoying increasing attention, where it plays a central role in general cellular recycling (macroautophagy) as well as the targeted clearance (selective autophagy) of damaged mitochondria and peroxisomes in response to oxidative stress, independently of the DNA damage response. The importance of ATM activation by oxidative stress has also recently been highlighted in the clearance of protein aggregates, where the expression of a functional ATM construct that cannot be activated by oxidative stress resulted in widespread accumulation of protein aggregates. This review will discuss the role of ATM in general autophagy, mitophagy, and pexophagy as well as aggrephagy and crosstalk between oxidative stress as an activator of ATM and its potential role as a master regulator of these processes.
- ItemAtaxia-Telangiectasia Mutated is located in cardiac mitochondria and impacts oxidative phosphorylation(Springer Nature, 2019) Blignaut, Marguerite; Loos, Ben; Botchway, Stanley W.; Parker, Anthony W.; Huisamen, BarbaraThe absence of Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated protein kinase (ATM) is associated with neurological, metabolic and cardiovascular defects. The protein has been associated with mitochondria and its absence results in mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, it can be activated in the cytosol by mitochondrial oxidative stress and mediates a cellular anti-oxidant response through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, the precise location and function of ATM within mitochondria and its role in oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. We show that ATM is found endogenously within cardiac myocyte mitochondria under normoxic conditions and is consistently associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Acute ex vivo inhibition of ATM protein kinase significantly decreased mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I-mediated oxidative phosphorylation rate but did not decrease coupling efficiency or oxygen consumption rate during β-oxidation. Chemical inhibition of ATM in rat cardiomyoblast cells (H9c2) significantly decreased the excited-state autofluorescence lifetime of enzyme-bound reduced NADH and its phosphorylated form, NADPH (NAD(P)H; 2.77 ± 0.26 ns compared to 2.57 ± 0.14 ns in KU60019-treated cells). This suggests an interaction between ATM and the electron transfer chain in the mitochondria, and hence may have an important role in oxidative phosphorylation in terminally differentiated cells such as cardiomyocytes.
- ItemChronic prosopis glandulosa treatment blunts neutrophil infiltration and enhances muscle repair after contusion injury(MDPI, 2015-01) George, Cindy; Smith, Carine; Isaacs, Ashwin W.; Huisamen, BarbaraThe current treatment options for soft tissue injuries remain suboptimal and often result in delayed/incomplete recovery of damaged muscle. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of oral Prosopis glandulosa treatment on inflammation and regeneration in skeletal muscle after contusion injury, in comparison to a conventional treatment. The gastrocnemius muscle of rats was subjected to mass-drop injury and muscle samples collected after 1-, 3 h, 1- and 7 days post-injury. Rats were treated with P. glandulosa (100 mg/kg/day) either for 8 weeks prior to injury (up until day 7 post-injury), only post-injury, or with topically applied diclofenac post-injury (0.57 mg/kg). Neutrophil (His48-positive) and macrophage (F4/80-positive) infiltration was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry. Indicators of muscle satellite cell proliferation (ADAM12) and regeneration (desmin) were used to evaluate muscle repair. Chronic P. glandulosa and diclofenac treatment (p < 0.0001) was associated with suppression of the neutrophil response to contusion injury, however only chronic P. glandulosa treatment facilitated more effective muscle recovery (increased ADAM12 (p < 0.05) and desmin (p < 0.001) expression), while diclofenac treatment had inhibitory effects on repair, despite effective inhibition of neutrophil response. Data indicates that P. glandulosa treatment results in more effective muscle repair after contusion.
- ItemCreatine and exercise – strong evidence for stronger heart muscle(American Society of Exercise Physiologists, 2011-10) Webster, Ingrid; Huisamen, Barbara; Du Toit, Eugene F.There has been a dramatic increase in the use of dietary creatine supplementation among sports men and women, and by clinicians as a therapeutic agent in muscular and neurological diseases. The effects on skeletal muscles have been documented and reviewed extensively. However, this review looks at another important muscle – the heart – and both the advantages and disadvantages to creatine supplementation, exercise, and the combination. The proposed mechanisms of each are examined and explained.
- ItemTHE EFFECT OF LONG TERM SWIM TRAININ G ON PHYSIOLOGICA L STRESS LEVELS IN THE RAT(The Society of Medical Laboratory Technologists of South Africa, 2010-12) Webster, Ingrid; Du Toit, Eugene F; Huisamen, Barbara; Biomedical Sciences: Medical Physiology
- ItemFenofibrate protects endothelial cells against the harmful effects of TNF-alpha(South African Heart Association, 2017) Westcott, Corli; Genis, Amanda; Mthethwa, Mashudu; Graham, Roxanne; Van Vuuren, Derick; Huisamen, Barbara; Strijdom, HansIntroduction: Fenofibrate exerts pleiotropic effects on endothelial cells (ECs) by, amongst others, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production. We aimed to investigate fenofi brate’s putative beneficial actions in healthy or TNF-alpha-induced dysfunctional ECs. Methods: Fenofi brate-induced pro-vasodilatory responses were assessed in aortic rings (50 - 125μM; 30min) with and without L-NMMA (100μM). Rat cardiac microvascular ECs were treated with fenofibrate (30 and 50μM; 1h). In the pre-treatment experiments, fenofibrate (50μM) was administered one hour before TNFalpha treatment (20ng/ml; 24h). NO-production (DAF-2/DA or Griess assay), mitochondrial ROS-production (MitoSox™), cell viability (propidium iodide staining), and changes in the expression/phosphorylation of critical endothelial proteins were measured by Western blotting. Results: Fenofibrate increased NO-production ˜2-fold in healthy ECs (p<0.05 vs. vehicle). A ˜23% pro-vasodilatory response was induced in aortic rings, which was reversed by L-NMMA (p<0.05 vs. fenofibrate). Fenofibrate pretreatment ameliorated TNF-alpha-induced endothelial dysfunction by reversing the loss of NO, improving oxidative stress, restoring cell viability and preventing caspase-3 activation. Protective effects were underpinned by ˜47% and ˜49% up-regulation of activated eNOS and AMP-kinase, respectively (p<0.05 vs. TNFalpha). Conclusions: Fenofibrate protects TNF-alpha-induced dysfunctional ECs via up-regulated eNOS-NO, reduced oxidative stress and improved cell viability. These novel findings warrant further investigations to explore the potential use of fenofibrate as an anti-endothelial dysfunction therapeutic agent.
- ItemHigh carbohydrate and high fat diets protect the heart against ischaemia/reperfusion injury(BioMed Central Ltd., 2014-07-18) Salie, Ruduwaan; Huisamen, Barbara; Lochner, AmandaBackground: Although obesity is still considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disorders, recent studies suggested that it may also be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality, the so-called “obesity paradox”. Experimental data on the impact of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury are controversial. Similar conflicting data have been reported regarding the effects of ischaemic preconditioning on ischaemia/reperfusion injury in hearts from such animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the susceptibility to myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion damage in two models of diet-induced obesity as well as the effect of ischaemic and pharmacological preconditioning on such hearts. Methods: Three groups of rats were fed with: (i) normal rat chow (controls) (ii) a sucrose-supplemented diet (DIO) (iii) a high fat diet (HFD). After 16 weeks, rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts perfused in the working mode and subjected to 35 min regional ischaemia/60 min reperfusion. Endpoints were infarct size and functional recovery. Infarct size was determined, using tetrazolium staining. Activation of PKB/Akt and ERKp44/p42 (RISK pathway) during early reperfusion was determined using Western blot. Statistical evaluation was done using ANOVA and the Bonferroni correction. Results: Infarct sizes of non-preconditioned hearts from the two obese groups were significantly smaller than those of the age-matched controls. Ischaemic as well as pharmacological (beta-adrenergic) preconditioning with a beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist, formoterol, caused a significant reduction in infarct size of the controls, but were without effect on infarct size of hearts from the obese groups. However, ischaemic as well as beta-preconditioning caused an improvement in functional performance during reperfusion in all three groups. A clear-cut correlation between the reduction in infarct size and activation of ERKp44/p42 and PKB/Akt was not observed: The reduction in infarct size observed in the non-preconditioned hearts from the obese groups was not associated with activation of the RISK pathway. However, beta-adrenergic preconditioning caused a significant activation of ERKp44/p42, but not PKB/Akt, in all three groups. Conclusions: Relatively long-term administration of the two obesity-inducing diets resulted in cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion damage. Further protection by preconditioning was, however, without effect on infarct size, while an improvement in functional recovery was observed.
- ItemSanguinarine Non- Versus Re-Circulation During Isolated Heart Perfusion - A Jekyll and Hyde Effect?(Springer, 2014) Webster, Ingrid; Smith, Angelique; Huisamen, Barbara; Lochner, Amanda; Biomedical Sciences: Medical Physiology
- ItemSignalling pathways activated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide in the rat heart and their role in protection against ischaemia(Clinics Cardiv Publishing, 2008-04) Huisamen, Barbara; Genade, Sonia; Lochner, AmandaGlucagon-like peptide-1 is an incretin hormone proposed to have insulinomimetic effects on peripheral insulin-sensitive tissue. We examined these effects on the heart by using isolated, perfused rat hearts and adult ventricular myocytes. During normoxic perfusion, no effects of escalating concentrations of GLP-1 on either heart rate or left ventricular developed pressure were found. With functional performance as readout, we found that GLP-1 directly protected the heart against damage incurred by global low-flow ischaemia. This protection was sensitive to the presence of iodo-acetate, implicating activation of glycolysis, and was abolished by wortmannin, indicative of PI-3-kinase as mediator of protection. I n addition, GLP-1 had an infarct-sparing effect when supported by the presence of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor valine pyrrolidide. GLP-1 could not directly activate protein kinase B (also called Akt) or the extracellular regulated kinases Erk1/2 in hearts or cardiocytes under normoxic conditions, but phosphorylation of the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) on Thr172 was enhanced. I n addition, the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase- 2 was activated dose dependently. During reperfusion after ischaemia, modulation of the phosphorylation of PKB/Akt as well as AMPK was evident. GLP-1 therefore directly protected the heart against low-flow ischaemia by enhancing glycolysis, probably via activation of AMP kinase and by modulating the profile of activation of the survival kinase PKB/Akt.
- ItemThe identification, localization and characterization of receptor sites specific for inositolphosphates in the myocardium(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1993) Huisamen, Barbara; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of . Dept. of .
- ItemThe transcription profile unveils the cardioprotective effect of aspalathin against lipid toxicity in an in Vitro H9c2 model(MDPI, 2017) Johnson, Rabia; Dludla, Phiwayinkosi V.; Muller, Christo J. F.; Huisamen, Barbara; Essop, M. Faadiel; Louw, JohanAspalathin, a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone, has previously been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against hyperglycemia-induced shifts in substrate preference and subsequent apoptosis. However, the precise gene regulatory network remains to be elucidated. To unravel the mechanism and provide insight into this supposition, the direct effect of aspalathin in an isolated cell-based system, without the influence of any variables, was tested using an H9c2 cardiomyocyte model. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to high glucose (33 mM) for 48 h before post-treatment with or without aspalathin. Thereafter, RNA was extracted and RT2 PCR Profiler Arrays were used to profile the expression of 336 genes. Results showed that, 57 genes were differentially regulated in the high glucose or high glucose and aspalathin treated groups. Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) analysis revealed lipid metabolism and molecular transport as the biological processes altered after high glucose treatment, followed by inflammation and apoptosis. Aspalathin was able to modulate key regulators associated with lipid metabolism (Adipoq, Apob, CD36, Cpt1, Pparγ, Srebf1/2, Scd1 and Vldlr), insulin resistance (Igf1, Akt1, Pde3 and Map2k1), inflammation (Il3, Il6, Jak2, Lepr, Socs3, and Tnf13) and apoptosis (Bcl2 and Chuk). Collectively, our results suggest that aspalathin could reverse metabolic abnormalities by activating Adipoq while modulating the expression of Pparγ and Srebf1/2, decreasing inflammation via Il6/Jak2 pathway, which together with an observed increased expression of Bcl2 prevents myocardium apoptosis.