Browsing by Author "Becker, W. B."
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- ItemHerpesvirus hominis oesophagitis and oesophageal stricture(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1980) Heydenrych, J. J.; Keet, A. D.; Mare, J. B.; Becker, W. B.The literature on herpetic involvement of the esophagus is reviewed and a case is described in which the presumptive clinical diagnosis of primary Herpesvirus hominis stomatitis and oesophagitis and subsequently esophageal strictures was made. The differential diagnosis of an esophageal lesion and its treatment are discussed.
- ItemHTLV-III infection in the RSA(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1986-10) Becker, W. B.The diagnosis of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) was initially based on strict clinical and laboratory criteria of acquired immune deficiency. Specific diagnostic tests for HTLV-Ill infection only became available after the' isolation of the causative virus in France in 1983 and subsequently in the USA and elsewhere.
- ItemIsolation of a lymphadenopathy-associated virus from a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1985) Becker, M. L. B.; Spracklen, F. H. N.; Becker, W. B.A virus similar to the lymphadenopathy-associated virus or human T-lymphotropic virus type III, which has been described in association with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) by several laboratories elsewhere in the world, was isolated from a Cape Town patient with lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency. This virus has the characteristic morphogenesis and ultrastructure and its genome encodes the virus-specific p24 protein. It is T-lymphotropic and produces the characteristics cytopathic effect. It can be serially propagated in a human lymphocyte line of T4+ phenotype. This isolate is being used in diagnostic immunofluorescence assays for virus-specific antibodies.
- ItemIsolation of a new human herpesvirus producing a lytic infection of helper (CD4) T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. Another cause of acquired immunodeficiency(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1988-12) Becker, W. B.; Engelbrecht, S.; Becker, M. L. B.; Piek, C.; Robson, B. A.; Wood, L.; Jacobs, P.A new human helper (CD4) T-lymphotropic herpesvirus (HTLHV) was first isolated in February 1985 from the cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and subsequently from the PBL of 1 patient with hairy cell leukaemia and 2 patients with lymphoproliferative disease associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection. The viruses could be serially subcultured in umbilical cord PBL cultures in which they infected helper (CD4) T-lymphocytes producing multinucleate giant cells with intranuclear inclusions followed by cell lysis. Electron microscopy of infected cultures revealed that the isolates were herpesviruses. Specific DNA probing showed that the 4 isolates were related to one another but were distinct from cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Herpes-virus hominis types 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster virus. HTLHV lyses the same target cell as human immunodeficiency virus in PBL cultures suggesting that it may have a similar potential to cause acquired immune deficiency. The development of an unequivocally diagnostic serological test is a priority, so that the epidemiology and pathogenesis of HTLHV infection can be studied.
- ItemIsolation of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) from a black South African with Kaposi's sarcoma(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1988) Becker, W. B.; Botha, M. C.; Engelbrecht, S.; Becker, M. L. B.Serological evidence for HTLV-I infection in the South African population has now been confirmed by the isolation of the virus from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of an adult Tsonga male. The subject was an indigenous black man from the south-eastern Transval who had suffered from Kaposi's sarcoma for a decade and in whom serum antibodies against HTLV-I were demonstrated. T-lymphocyte cell lines were established from his peripheral blood lymphocytes and shown to be productively infected with HTLV-I as evidenced by: the characteristic cell morphology; the typical morphogenesis on ultrathin section electron microscopy; the viral genome in DNA extracted from the cell lines; characteristic reverse transcriptase activity and viral specific proteins in the cell cultrue supernatant fluids. Spread of infection occurs through sexual intercourse, from mother to child, and by blood transfusion. Donated blood should be screened to contain the spread of HTLV-I infection.
- ItemKaposi's sarcoma in a renal allograft recipient with cytomegalovirus infection : a case report(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1982) Le Roux, F. B.; Burman, N. D.; Becker, W. B.There are increasing reports of Kaposi's sarcoma arising in immunosuppressed patients, including renal allograft recipients. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that cytomegalovirus infection may be an aetiological factor in kaposi's sarcoma. We report an additional case in a renal allograft recipient treated with corticosteroids, azathioprine and niridazole, who also had active cytomegalovirus infection.
- ItemLeukaemogenesis in Down's syndrome(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1977) Gericke, G. S.; Hesseling, P. B.; Brink, S.; Becker, W. B.Due to the fixed karotype and documented malignancy risk in patients with Down's syndrome, recently described aetiological factors can be assigned to their proper places in a conceptual framework for leukaemogenesis in these individuals. This is a more profitable approach than those in which various types of karyotypic patterns are matched to different malignancies. It seems that viruses may play a special role, but they need interaction with other factors, most of which are present in Down's syndrome. A unifying concept which may be helpful in establishing research priorities is presented.
- ItemMumps meningo-encephalitis(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1987-3) Donald, P. R.; Burger, P. J.; Becker, W. B.Between July 1981 and June 1985, 49 cases (36 boys (73%) and 13 girls (27%)) of mumps meningoencephalitis confirmed by culture of the virus from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were seen. Patients presented particularly in the late spring and early summer. A CSF cell count > 500 x 106/l was obtained in 14 cases (28%), a total CSF protein > 0,8 g/l in 6 cases (12%) and a CSF glucose of < 2,2 mmol/l in 2 cases (4%). Two cases are reported to illustrate the diagnostic problems which the infection may cause, particularly when the CSF changes resemble those of tuberculous meningitis. In 1 case neurogenic pulmonary oedema developed after a convulsion; this caused further diagnostic uncertainty.
- ItemPaediatric meningitis in the western Cape : a 3-year hospital-based prospective survey(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1986) Donald, P. R.; Burger, P. J.; Becker, W. B.Between July 1981 and June 1984 1223 cases of meningitis were seen in the Department of Paediatrics, Tygerberg Hospital. The commonest form in each population group was aseptic meningitis. Positive viral cultures were obtained from the CSF in 108 cases. The median age of white children with aseptic meningitis, 64 months, was significantly greater than that of coloured children, 45 months (P > 0,0001), and black children, 26 months (P > 0,014). The commonest cause of confirmed bacterial meningitis was Neisseria meningitidis (140 cases; 11,5%), which continues to affect mainly young coloured children (median age 16,9 months). Resistance to sulphonamides was found among 21% of 114 N. meningitidis isolates. Among white children Haemophilus influenzae was responsible for 9 of the 18 cases of confirmed bacterial meningitis. Tuberculosis was responsible for 62 cases of meningitis (5%) and was a commoner cause of meningitis than either H. influenzae (47 cases) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (34 cases). Thirty-four confirmed cases of bacterial meningitis were seen in children less than 1 month old. Klebsiella species were responsible for 8 cases (24%), Escherichia coli for 6 cases (12%), group B β-haemolytic Streptococcus for 5 cases (15%) while 4 cases each were due to N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae.
- ItemSerum antibodies to human T-cell leukaemia virus type I in different ethnic groups and in non-human primates in South Africa(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 1985) Becker, W. B.; Becker, M. L. B.; Homma, T.The prevalence of humoral antibodies to human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was investigated in different ethnic groups and in non-human primates in South Africa. Serum antibody levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using either disrupted whole HTLV-I or purified p24 core protein (p24 HTLV-I) as antigens. ELISA was complemented by direct radio-immunoprecipitation assays using either purified iodinated p24 HTLV-I or radiolabelled lysates of an HTLV-producing cell line as antigen followed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitates, and by immunofluorescence using the HTLV-I-producing cell line HUT-102 as antigen. Antibodies were demonstrated in 3,5% of Asians, 3,5% of blacks and 4,1% of coloureds, but not in whites, and also in 29% of vervet monkeys and 33% of baboons. We conclude that HTLV-I or closely related viruses cause widespread infection in non-human primates in South Africa and in a lower percentage of humans, including apparently healthy blood donors. We are currently isolating retroviruses from seropositive reactors and investigating the possible relevance to disease in South Africa.
- ItemTraumatic herpesvirus hominis infection during rugby (Herpus venatorum) : a discussion of four cases(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 1978-10) Mare, J. B.; Keyzer, C. M. J.; Becker, W. B.Four cases of traumatic Herpesvirus hominis infection of the skin sustained during rugby are described. Attention is drawn to the importance of Herpesvirus infection of the eye, both primary and secondary, whether from self-inoculation or exogenous infection. The diagnosis must be correct so that specific treatment with idoxuridine may be considered and harmful treatment with corticosteroids may be avoided. Personal contact should be avoided during active infection. Epidemiological data show that an increasing percentage of young adults are susceptible to primary Herpesvirus infection. We are aware of undiagnosed cases and expect an increasing incidence of this type of infection.