The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway induces gene promoter activity of the cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase

Imbriolo, Jamie (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCβ) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) uptake; thus increased ACCβ activity decreases fatty acid utilization thereby potentially leading to intracellular myocardial lipid accumulation and insulin resistance (IR). Previous studies show that greater flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) contributes to the development of IR. In light of this, we hypothesize that increased HBP flux induces ACCβ gene expression thereby contributing to the onset of IR. Our initial work focused on ACCβ gene promoter regulation and suggest that the HBP modulates upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) thereby inducing ACCβ gene expression. Here, we further investigated HBP-mediated regulation of ACCβ gene expression by transiently transfecting cardiac-derived H9c2 cells with an expression vector encoding the rate-limiting HBP enzyme (GFAT) ± the full length ACCβ and 4 truncated promoter-luciferase constructs, respectively. GFAT overexpression increased ACCβ gene promoter activity for the full length and 3 larger deletion constructs (p<0.001 vs. controls). However, GFAT-mediated and USF2-mediated ACCβ promoter induction was blunted when co-transfected with the -38/+65 deletion construct suggesting that USF2 binds to the proximal promoter region (near start codon). Further investigation proves that USF2 binds to ACCβ promoter and activates it, but that USF2 is not O-GlcNAc modified even though there is a strong correlation between increased O-GlcNac levels and USF2 activation of ACCβ. This would suggest that there is another O-GlcNac modified factor involved in this regulatory pathway. Our study demonstrates that increased HBP flux induces ACCβ gene promoter activity via HBP modulation of USF2. We propose that ACCβ induction reduces fatty acid oxidation, thereby leading to intracellular lipid accumulation (FA uptake>>FA oxidation) and the onset of cardiac IR.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die kardiale isoform van asetiel-CoA karboksilase (ACCβ) produseer maloniel-CoA, ‘n kragtige inhibeerder van mitochondriale vetsuur (VS) opname, en om hierdie rede sal verhoogde ACCβ aktiwiteit, vetsuur gebruik verlaag en potensieël aanleiding gee tot intrasellulêre miokardiale lipiedophoping en insulienweerstand (IW). Vorige studies toon dat groter fluks deur die heksosamienbiosintetiese weg (HBW) bydra tot die ontwikkeling van IW. In die lig hiervan hipotetiseer ons dat verhoogde HBW fluks, ACCβ geenuitdrukking induseer, en sodoende tot die onstaan van IW bydra. Ons aanvanglike werk het op ACCβ geenpromotorregulering gefokus, en voorgestel dat die HBW die opstroom stimuleringsfaktor 2 (USF2) moduleer en dus ACCβ geen uitdrukking induseer. Hier het ons verder die HBW-gemedieërde regulering van ACCβ-geenuitdrukking deur kortstondige tranfeksie van kardiaalverkrygde H9c2 selle met ‘n uitdrukkingsvektor wat kodeer vir die tempo-bepalende HBW ensiem (GFAT) ± die volle lengte ACCβ, en vier afgestompte promotor-lusiferase konstrukte onderskeidelik, te ondersoek. GFAT ooruidrukking het ACCβ geenpromotor aktiwiteit vir die volle lengte, en drie groter uitwissingskonstrukte verhoog (p<0.001 vs. kontrole). Hoewel GFAT- en USF2-gemedieërde ACCβ promotorinduksie tydens ko-transfeksie van die -38/+65 uitwissingskonstruk versag was, is dit voorgestel dat USF2 aan die proksimale promotor area (naby die beginkodon) bind. Verdere ondersoek bewys ook dat USF2 aan die ACCβ promotor bind en dit aktiveer, maar dat USF2 nie O-GlcNAc gemodifiseer word nie ten spyte van ‘n sterk korrelasie tussen verhoogde O-GlcNac vlakke en USF2 aktivering van ACCβ. Dit kan dus voogestel word dat daar ‘n alternatiewe O-GlcNac gemodifiseerde faktor betrokke is in hierdie reguleringsweg. Ons studie demonstreer dat verhoogde HBW fluks ACCβ geenpromotor aktiwiteit via HBW modulering van USF2 veroorsaak. Ons stel voor dat ACCβ induksie vetsuuroksidasie verlaag en so tot intrasellulêre lipiedophoping (VS opname >> VS oksidasie) en die onstaan van kardiale IW lei.

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