Isolation and properties of a feruloyl esterase from Aureobasidium pullulans and its mechanism in lignocellulose degradation

Rumbold, Karl, 1973- (2003-12)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The production, purification and functional characterisation of feruloyl esterase from Aureobasidium pullulans were set as the primary objectives of this study. A further objective was to investigate a possible co-operative effect with other selected lignocellulolytic enzymes on substrates relevant to industry. In a comprehensive review, feruloyl esterases from various micro-organisms were compared both functionally and with regard to their primary structure, where applicable. Feruloyl esterases show intriguing differences in substrate specificity and sequence structure. Enzymes that are closely related regarding their amino acid sequence exhibit different substrate specificities. Sequence similarities can be found with a range of other enzyme families, including serine esterases, acetyl xylan esterases, lipases, tannases, glycosyl hydrolases and xylanases. More data on the three dimensional structure of feruloyl esterases as well as an examination of all available feruloyl esterases with the same substrates is necessary before structure-function relationships can be established and before the feruloyl esterases can be organized into discrete families based on ancestral origins. The highest production levels of feruloyl esterase by A. pullulans are achieved when grown on birchwood xylan. Expression was not repressed when glucose or xylose was present in the medium. However, free ferulic acid supplemented to the medium affected fungal growth and therefore did not increase feruloyl esterase activity. It is also suggested that the synthesis of feruloyl esterase is independently regulated from xylanase synthesis. Feruloyl esterase from A. pullulans acts on a- and l3-naphthyl acetate, as well as naphthol AS-D chloroacetate as substrates. Feruloyl esterase from A. pullulans was purified to homogeneity using ultrafiltration with high molecular weight cut-off, anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and ultimately gel filtration chromatography. With a molecular weight of 210 kDa, the enzyme is the largest of the feruloyl esterases reported to date. Kinetic data was produced using both synthetic and natural substrates. A. pullulans feruloyl esterase shows properties similar to other fungal feruloyl esterases, especially from Aspergillus niger cinnamic acid esterase and Penicillium funiculosum feruloyl esterase B. The N-terminal sequence of A. pullulans feruloyl esterase was identified, but no similarities to known enzyme families were found. Peptide mass mapping did not reveal structural information. In an effort to evaluate the significance of feruloyl esterase from A. pullulans in the degradation of lignocellulose, dissolving pulp and sugar cane bagasse were selectively treated using feruloyl esterase and hemicellulolytic enzymes. The enzymatic degradation reaction was monitored using microdialysis sampling, anion exchange chromatography, online desalting and mass spectrometry. It has been shown, that feruloyl esterase activity together with xylanase activity releases monosaccharides from both substrates. Sugars of higher degree of polymerisation were not released, giving evidence for the recalcitrance of the material. The fibre architecture of the substrates was apparently not accessible to the enzymes and therefore complete hydrolysis was hindered.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die produksie, suiwering en funksionele karakterisering van feruloïel esterase afkomstig van Aureobasidium pullulans was die primêre doelwitte van hierdie studie. 'n Verdere doelwit was om vas te stelof daar 'n kooperatiewe effek met ander geselekteerde lignosellulitiese ensieme op substrate wat industrierelevant is, bestaan. Die feruloïel esterase van verskillende mikro-organismes is vanuit die oogpunt van funksie en primêre struktuur omvattend met mekaar vergelyk, waar toepaslik. Interessante verskille tussen die substraat spesifisiteit en volgordestruktuur van feruloïel esterase kan waargeneem word. Ensieme wat nou aanmekaar verwant is wat hul aminosuurvolgorde betref, het duidelik verskillende substraatspesifiteite. Volgordeverwantskap kan in 'n reeks van ander ensiemfamilies, insluitende serienesterase, asetielxilaanesterase, lipases, tannases, glikosielhidrolases en xilanases vasgestel word. Meer inligting oor die driedimensionele struktuur van feruloïel esterase asook 'n analise van al die beskikbare feruloïel esterase met dieselfde substrate is nodig voordat struktuur-funksie verwantskappe vasgestel kan word en voordat die feruloïel esterases in eie families op die grond van huloorsprong georganiseer kan word. Die hoogste produksie vlakke deur feruloïel esterase van A. pullulans word bekom deur dit op berkhoutxilaan te groei. Ekspressie was nie onderdruk wanneer glukose of xilose in die medium aanwesig was nie. Wanneer vrye feruliensuur by die medium bygevoeg is, is die fungale groei beïnloed en het die feruloïel esterase aktiwiteit nie vermeerder nie. Dit word ook voorgestel dat die sintese van feruloïel esterase onafhanklik deur xilanase sintese gereguleer word. Feruloïel esterase van A. pullulans reageer op a- en f3- naftolasetaat, asook naftol AS-D chloroasetaat as substrate. Feruloïel esterase van A. pullulans is tot homogeniteit deur ultrafiltrering met .n hoë molekulêre gewiggrens, anioonuitruiling, hidrofobiese interaksie en eindelik gelfiltrasie-chromatografie gesuiwer. Met 'n molekulêre gewig van 210 kDa, is die ensiem die grootste van die feruloïel esterases tot dusver beskryf. Kinetiese data is met behulp van sintetiese en natuurlike substrate geproduseer. A. pullulans feruloïel esterase het eienskappe wat vergelykbaar is aan die van ander fungal feruloïel esterases, veral die wat afkomstig is van Aspergillus niger sinnamiensuur esterase en Penicillium funiculosum feruloïel esterase B. Die N-terminale volgorde van A. pullulans feruloïel esterase is identifiseer maar geen ooreenkoms aan bekende ensiemfamilies kon vasgestel word nie. Peptiedmassakaartering kon ook geen strukturele inligting gee nie. Oplosbare pulp en suikerrietbagasse is geselekteerd met behulp van feruloïel esterase en lignosellulitiese ensieme behandel om die belang van feruloïel esterase van A. pullulans in die afbraak van lignosellulose vas te stel. Die hidroliese-reaksie is deur mikrodialise monsterneming, anioonuitruilingschromatografie, oplyn ontsouting en massaspektrometrie gemonitor. Wanneer die aktiwiteit van feruloïel esterase met die van xilanase gekombineer is, is monosakkariede deur albei substrate afgeskei. Suikers met 'n hoër graad van polimerisering is nie afgeskei nie, wat 'n bewys van die materiaal se weerstandbiedendheid is. Dit het geblyk asof die vesel-argitektuur van die verbruikte substraat nie toeganklik was vir ensieme nie en dus is algehele hidroliese verhinder.

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