Prediction and ecotoxicological effects of runoff induced pesticide contamination in agricultural surface waters : a risk assessment using GIS and microcosms

Dabrowski, James Michael (2001-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Runoff is generally regarded as one of the most important routes of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters. Of major concern is the fact that low, sub-lethal levels of pesticide exposure are responsible for negative ecotoxicological effects, stressing the need for methods capable of identifying problem areas where populations could be at risk. Predicted average losses of three pesticides in tributaries of nine sub-catchments of the Lourens River were calculated through use of a GIS-based runoff model. There was a significant (p < 0.005) positive correlation between the predicted average loss and mean measured concentrations of the insecticides both in water and suspended sediments (R2 between 0.75 and 0.9), indicating that the model could serve as a powerful tool for the risk assessment and management of surface waters in South African orchard areas. Based on field relevant exposure scenanos, the potential effects of azinphos-methyl on macroinvertebrate communities were evaluated in a combined microcosm and field approach. Microcosms were contaminated for 1 h with AZP (control, 0.2; 1,5and 20 ug/L; three replicates each) and acute effects on survival were evaluated 6 days after exposure. The sensitivity or tolerance of 12 core taxa was determined based on their response to the exposure scenarios and compared to field tolerance/sensitivity as was established by a field investigation at a control and contaminated site of the Lourens River. The sensitivity/tolerance of ten of the 12 taxa corresponded to that which was found in the field. Thus microcosm studies employing a field relevant design can be successfully linked to field studies and indicate that transient pesticide contamination affects the aquatic communities of the Lourens River.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Afloop word oor die algemeen beskou as een van die belangrikste roetes van niepuntbron pestisiedbesoedeling in landbou oppervlakwaters. Die feit dat lae, sub-letale vlakke van pestisiedblootstelling negatiewe ektoksikologiese gevolge kan hê, is van groot belang. Dit beklemtoon die behoefte aan metodes om probleemgebiede te kan identifiseer waar bevolkings aan risiko onderhewig is. 'n GIS-gebaseerde afloopmodel is gebruik om die gemidddelde verlies van drie pestisiede in die sytakke van nege sub-opvangsgebiede van die Lourensrivier te voorspel. Daar was 'n beduidende (p < 0.005) positiewe korrelasie tussen die voorspelde gemiddelde verlies en gemete konsentrasies van insektisiede in beide die water en sediment (R2 between 0.75 and 0.9) fases, wat aandui dat die model as 'n kragtige hulpmiddel vir risikobestuur van oppervlakwaters in Suid Afrikaanse boord-gebiede kan dien. Die potensiële gevolge van azinfos-rnetiel (AZP) op makroinvertebraat gemeenskappe is deur middel van 'n gekombineerde mikrokosmos (wat op veldrelevante blootstellings gebaseer is) en veldbenadering bepaal. Mikrokosmosse is vir 1 h met AZP gekontamineer (kontrole; 1; 0.2; 1; 5 en 20 ~g1L; drie replikate elk), en die akute gevolge op oorlewing is ge-evalueer na ses dae van blootstelling. Die sensitiwiteit of toleransie van 12 sleutel taksa is deur middel van hulle respons op die blootstellingsreeks bepaal, en met hulle veldtoleransie/sensitiwiteit vergelyk wat in 'n veldstudie by 'n kontrole- en gekontamineerde gebied in die Lourensrivier bepaal is. Die sensitiwiteit/toleransie van 10 van die 12 taksa in die mikrokosmos eksperimente het ooreengestem met die wat in die veld gevind is. Mikrokosmosstudies wat op 'n veldrelevante ontwerp gebaseer is, kan dus suksesvol aan veldstudies gekoppel word, en dui aan dat oorgedraagde pestisiedkontaminasie die akwatiese gemeenskap van die Lourensrivier beinvloed.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/52409
This item appears in the following collections: