Association between antioxidant status and MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in trained male athletes (rugby players) and sedentary male students controlled for antioxidant intake

Seele, Maria (2007-03)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The human body has developed an integrated antioxidant defence system to protect against free radical damage. Acute exercise may result in the increased generation of free radicals, including reactive oxygen species, and this may overwhelm antioxidant defence systems resulting in oxidative stress. However, it has been shown that individuals who undergo regular exercise training may have improved antioxidant capacity when compared to sedentary controls. Results from research regarding the association between antioxidant capacity and exercise training are however not conclusive and further investigation is required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the total plasma antioxidant status and selected plasma indicators of antioxidant status and the MnSOD Ala-9Val (-28C®T) polymorphism in trained male athletes (rugby players) and sedentary male students while controlling for dietary intake of the major antioxidants using a validated dietary assessment method. In order to address the potential confounding effect of dietary antioxidant intake on antioxidant status in the main study, a FFQ that measures vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoid and flavonoid intake was developed. The reproducibility was assessed by the repeat administration of the FFQ (n = 38), while the va lidity was assessed using a 28-day closeended dietary record and repeated plasma vitamin C values (n = 18). Several statistical tests were conducted to compare the values obtained from the FFQ with values obtained from the various reference methods. While results from Bland-Altman plots suggested that the reproducibility and validity of FFQ was not completely satisfactory, similar mean values, moderate to strong correlation coefficients, and a high percentage of individuals classified correctly according to quartiles of intake indicated satisfactory reproducibility and validity of the FFQ in assessing antioxidant intake. Furthermore, moderate to strong validity coefficients obtained from the method of triads also indicated satisfactory validity for the FFQ. The main study involved a cross-sectional study that compared plasma vitamin C and carotenoid levels as well as total plasma antioxidant status in trained rugby players (n = 76) and sedentary male subjects (n = 39) with different MnSOD genotypes, while controlling for dietary antioxidant intake. Rugby players had significantly higher plasma vitamin C and carotenoid levels compared to sedentary students, which indicated more satisfactory plasma antioxidant status. This was also reflected in the tendency for total plasma antioxidant status (ORAC assay) to be higher in rugby players than sedentary students. MnSOD genotype did not influence plasma vitamin C and carotenoid levels or plasma total antioxidant status, with or without control for dietary antioxidant intake. Dietary vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoid an flavonoid intake (from foods + supplements) was similar for rugby players and sedentary students and was adequate for both groups. Thus the association between antioxidant status and MnSOD genotype in rugby players and sedentary students seemed not to be influenced by dietary antioxidant intake. In conclusion therefore, rugby players undergoing regular exercise training had a more satisfactory antioxidant status compared to sedentary students. Based on this conclusion, the widespread use of antioxidant supplements by athletes is questioned.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die menslike liggaam beskik oor ‘n geintegreerde antioksidantmeganisme om dit teen vryradikaalskade te beskerm. Akute oefening kan bydra tot ‘n verhoogde produksie van vry radikale, insluitend reaktiewe suurstofspesies, wat kan veroorsaak dat die antioksidantbeskermingsmeganisme oorlaai word, wat dan kan aanleiding gee tot die ontstaan van oksidatiewe stress. Dit is aangetoon dat persone wat gereeld oefening doen verbeterde antioksidantkapasiteit toon in vergelyking met persone wat geen oefening doen nie. Die resultate van navorsingstudies wat die verband tussen antioksidantkapasiteit en oefening ondersoek is egter teenstrydig en verdere navorsing op hierdie gebied is essensieël om uitsluitsel te kry oor kontensieuse vraagstukke. Die doel van hierdie studie was dus om ondersoek in te stel na die verband tussen plasma antioksidant status, die MnSOD Ala-9Val (-28C T) polimorfisme en geselekteerde plasma antioksidantmerkers in geoefende manlike atlete (rugby spelers) en ‘n onaktiewe manlike kontrolegroep terwyl gekontroleer word vir die dieetinname van die vernaamste antioksidante. Om vir die potensiële invloed van dieetantioksidantinname op die antioksidantstatus van proefpersone in die hoofstudie te kontroleer, is ‘n voedsel frekwensievraelys wat vitamien C-, vitamien E-, karotenoïed- en flavinoïedinname meet, ontwikkel. Die herhaalbaarheid (betroubaarheid) van die vraelys is getoets deur herhaalde voltooiing daarvan deur ‘n toetsgroep (n=38), terwyl die geldighied getoets is deur gebruik te maak van ‘n 28-dag geslote dieetrekord en herhaalde plasma vitamien C bepalings as verwysingswaardes (n=18). Verskeie statistiese toetse is uitgevoer om die frekwensievraelys waardes met die verskillende verwysingswaardes te vergelyk. Alhoewel die Bland -Altman grafieke nie dui op bevredigende herhaalbaarheid en geldigheid van die voedselfrekwensie vraelys nie, dui gelyke gemiddelde waardes, matig tot sterk en betekenisvolle korrelasiekoeffisiënte en ‘n hoë persentasie individue korrek geklassifiseer volgens kwartiele van inname, wel op bevredigende herhaalbaarheid en geldigheid. Matige tot sterk geldigheidskoeffisiënte is ook verkry met die toepassing van “The method of Triads”, wat verdere steun bied vir bevredigende geldigheid. In die hoofstudie is plasma vitamien C, karotenoïedvlakke en totale plasma antioksidantstatus in manlike rugby spelers (n=76) vergelyk met dié van onaktiewe manlike kontroles (n=39). Vergelykings tussen MnSOD genotipes binne die aktiwiteitsgroepe is ook getref. Al genoemde analises is gekontroleer vir dieet antioksidantinname. Resultate dui daarop dat die plasma vitamien C en karotenoïedvlakke van rugby spelers betekenisvol hoër was as dié van die kontrolegroep, wat dui op ‘n meer bevredigende antioksidantstatus. Hierdie resultaat is ook weerspieël in die feit dat totale plasma antioksidantstatus (ORAC) in die rugby spelers oog geneig was om hoër te wees as dié van die kontrole groep. Dit het ook geblyk dat MnSOD genotipe nie ‘n effek gehad het op plasma vitamien C-, karotenoïed- of totale antioksidantstatus nie, met of sonder kontrole vir dieet antioksidantinname. Die dieet vitamien C-, vitamien E-, karotenoïed- en flavinoïedinname (vanaf voedsel en supplemente) was dieselfde vir rugby spelers en kontrole en was toereikend vir beide groepe. Dit blyk dus dat dat die verband tussen antioksidantstatus en MnSOD genotipe in die twee groepe nie beinvloed is deur antioksidantinname nie. Ten slotte kan die gevolgtrekking gemaak word dat manlike rugby spelers ‘n meer bevredigende antioksidant status het as onaktiwe manlike kontroles. Op grond van hierdie gevolgtrekking word die algemene gebruik van antioksidant supplemente deur atlete bevraagteken.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/19864
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