Event structure in Zulu

Sithole, Nomsa Veronica
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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study deals with three interrelated types of information about sentences in Zulu, i.e. situation aspect or events, viewpoint aspect which includes i.a. the perfective and imperfective aspect and the contribution of the temporal location of a sentence focusing on the basic tenses. The semantic feature of temporal location has been integrated with the view of the two components in sentences i.e. aspectual situation type and viewpoint. Vendier's classification of aspectual classes formed a base from which the Zulu event structure has been discussed. The contribution of the two theories, i.e. the Two Component theory of Smith (1997) and the Event Structure of Pustejovsky (1995) which is situated within the Generative Lexicon theory of lexical semantics featured prominently in the analysis of events and states in Zulu. A conclusion has been reached that there are four situation types relevant to Zulu and distinguished from each other by different temporal features. These situation types feature basic-level and derived-level types (according to Smith (1997)). Three event types have been identified for Zulu, i.e. state, process and transition (according to Pustejovsky (1995)). Events are complex semantic objects resulting in an extended event structure. Event structure classification for Zulu is established with structured sub-event. These event structures are defined with respect to three different types of ordering relation between sub-event, i.e. temporally ordered subevents, simultaneous sub-event and temporal overlap. The event structure has been distinguished through event headedness which give rise to twelve possible constructions. The basic principles and the temporal structures underlying the Zulu tenses are viewed in relation to the moment of speech, time of the situation and the reference time in the structure of tenses as shown in the viewpoint of Reichenbach developed by Hornstein (1990). The role played by adverbs as modifiers of tense is highlighted. The behavior of bounded and unbounded sentences in relation to tense is mentioned. Regarding the expression of aspect in Zulu, a clear distinction has been established between perfective and imperfective in Zulu. The aspect appears as an inflectional category within syntax. These categories may have a maximal projection according to the X-bar theory.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie gee aandag aan drie onderling verbonde tipes inligting oor sinne in. Zulu, d.i. die situasie-aspek of die gebeure, gesigspunt-aspek wat, onder andere, die perfektiewe en imperfektiewe aspek insluit en die bydrae van die temporele lokasie van 'n sin, met die fokus op die basiese tye. Die semantiese verskynsel van temporele lokasie is geintegreer met die aanname van die twee komponente in sinne, d.i. aspektueie situasie tipe, en die gesigspunt. Vendier se klassifikasie van aspektueie klasse het die basis gevorm waarvan daan die Zulu gebeure struktuur bespreek is. Die bydrae van die twee teorië, d.i. die Twee Komponent teorie van Smith (1997) en die gebeurde struktuur van Pustejovsky (1995) wat binne die Generatiewe Leksikon teorie van leksikale semantiek geleis, is in die analise van gebeure en toestand gebruik. Daar is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat daar vier situasietipes relevant tot Zulu is, en daar word tussen hulle deur middel van temporele verskynsels onderskei. Hierdie situasietipes beeld die basiese-vlak en die afgeleide-vlak tipes uit (volgens Smith (1997)) Drie tipes gebeure is vir Zulu geidentifiseer, d.i. toestand, proses, en oorgang (volgens Pustejovsky (1995)). Gebeure is kompleks semantiese voorwerpe wat tot uitgebreide gebeurde struktuur lei. Die gebeurde-struktuur se klassifikasie in Zulu is met gestruktureerde sub-gebeure gevestig. Hierdie gebeure-strukture is met betrekking tot drie verskillende tipes van verhouding ordening tusen sub-gebeure omskryf, d.i. temporeel geordende sub-gebeure, gelyktydige sub-gebeure en temporele oorslag. Die gebeure-struktuur is deur kemgebeure onderskei, wat aanleiding tot twaalf moontlike konstruksies gee. Die basiese beginsels en die temporele strukture onderliggend aan die Zulu tye word met betrekking tot die spraakmoment, tyd van die situasie, en die verwysingstyd in die struktuur van tye soos in Reichenbach se gesigspunt wat deur Hornstein (1990) ontwikkel, is, beskou. Die rol wat bywoorde as modifiseerders van tye speel, word na vore gebring. Die gedrag van gebonde en ongebonde sinne in verband met tyd word genoem. Betreffende die uitdrukking van aspek in Zulu is 'n besondere onderskeiding tussen die perfektief en imperfektief in Zulu gevestig. Die aspek kom as 'n infleksionêre kategorie binne sintaksis voor. Hierdie kategorie mag 'n maksimale projeksie volgens die x-bar teorie hê.
Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.
Zulu language -- Aspect, Zulu language -- Temporal constructions, Grammar, Comparative and general -- Aspect