The development of stress theories and their implications for therapeutic interventions : a review

De Villiers, Annamarie
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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper provides a theoretical overview and critical evaluation of current conceptualizations and research in the field of stress, with particular reference to the integration of theoretical knowledge with therapeutic interventions. The discussion commences with a brief look at the detrimental effects of stress. This is followed by a clarification of the concepts of stress, stressors, strains and coping. A review of recent developments in the major stress theories, namely the stimulus-response (S-R) models, stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) models, social stress theories, the holistic health model, control theory, psychodynamic theory, learning theory, self theory, existentialist theory, cognitive theory, the transactional model and conservation of resources theory, follows. Factors that can act as moderators of the adverse effects of stress are discussed briefly, as they hold important implications for interventions in psychological practice. These moderators include personality, social support and other moderators such as spiritual health, tolerance for ambiguity and genetic predisposition. An attempt to show how theory can inform practice by guiding specific interventions on primary, secondary and tertiary prevention levels concludes the discussion.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bied 'n teoretiese oorsig en kritiese evaluering van huidige konseptualiserings en navorsing op die terrein van stres, met spesifieke verwysing na die integrasie van teoretiese kennis met terapeutiese intervensies. Die bespreking begin met 'n algemene oorsig van die nadelige effekte van stres. 'n Verduideliking van die konsepte van stres, stressors, stresverwante spanning (strain) en streshantering (coping) volg. Hierop volg 'n oorsig van onlangse ontwikkelings in die belangrikste stresteorieë, naamlik die stimulus-respons (S-R) modelle, die stimulus-organisme-respons (S-O-R) modelle, sosiale stresteorieë, die holistiese gesondheidsmodel, sisteemteorieë, psigodinamiese teorie, leerteorie, selfteorie, eksistensialistiese teorie, kognitiewe teorie, die transaksionele model en laastens die behoud-van-bronne-teorie. Faktore wat kan dien as moderators van die nadelige effekte van stres word ook kortliks bespreek, aangesien hulle belangrike implikasies inhou vir terapeutiese intervensies. Die moderators wat in hierdie artikel bespreek word sluit in persoonlikheid, sosiale ondersteuning en ander moderators, naamlik geestelike welsyn, toleransie vir onsekerheid en genetiese predisposisie. Die artikel word afgesluit met 'n bespreking oor hoe die teorie terapeutiese intervensie kan bevorder op primêre, sekondêre en tersiêre voorkomingsvlakke.
Thesis (MA)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.
Stress (Psychology), Dissertations -- Psychology, Theses -- Psychology