Fatal hepatitis B infection despite immunization in an HIV-infected infant: A possible case of vaccine failure and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Van der Linden, D.
Cotton, M.
Rabie, H.
McKerrow, N.
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We report a case of hepatitis B immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an 8-month-old girl with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. In resource-constrained countries, HIV-hepatitis B co-infections are often difficult to diagnose and to treat. We highlight on the importance of hepatitis B and HIV screening in pregnant women, to implement efficient preventive measures. © The Author [2010]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
amikacin, BCG vaccine, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, ethambutol, fresh frozen plasma, hepatitis B vaccine, isoniazid, lactulose, lamivudine, lopinavir plus ritonavir, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, ritonavir, vitamin K group, zidovudine, add on therapy, article, axillary lymphadenitis, blood clotting disorder, case report, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, computer assisted tomography, disease association, drug withdrawal, failure to thrive, fatality, female, fluid therapy, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatitis B, Hepatitis B virus, hepatosplenomegaly, HIV associated dementia, human, Human immunodeficiency virus, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, immunization, infant, laboratory test, liver cirrhosis, liver failure, liver function test, liver toxicity, lymph node biopsy, lymphadenitis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, screening test, seizure, symptom, thorax radiography, thrush, tuberculosis, vaccine failure, AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections, Antitubercular Agents, Female, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B Vaccines, Hepatitis B virus, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Humans, Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, Immunization, Infant, Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical, Liver, Liver Function Tests, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Tuberculosis
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics