Investigating herbicide resistant ryegrass

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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Multiple herbicide resistance is an escalating problem in weeds globally. Ryegrass (Lolium spp.) is a major weed in grain cropping systems with documented cases of multiple herbicide resistance across the globe to various amalgamations of glufosinate‑ammonium, glyphosate, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and paraquat. In South Africa, ryegrass plants that survived herbicide applications were tested for multiple herbicide resistance while concurrently investigating spray deposition and adaptations to ryegrass biology based on cropping systems, i.e., Conservation Agriculture ryegrass from Langgewens Research Farm (LS), and resistance. Herbicide applications on young ryegrass plants show a lower spray deposition in terms of Fluorescent Particle Coverage (%) on the adaxis (0.31% ‑ 1.28%) than abaxis (3.93% ‑ 18.13%). Dose-response models varied due to unexpected dose range extremes and showed no paraquat resistance in the LS ryegrass with a lethal dose (LD50) of 0.482X, where X is the recommended dose. Extreme resistance was seen in ryegrass plants from Welgevallen Experimental Farm with differences between the ryegrass plants from the trial field (WS = 11.787X) and the ryegrass plants along the trial field perimeter (WP = 21.727X). Spearman correlations between ryegrass biology and resistance found a strong negative association (r = ‑0.80) between seed weight, mean germination percentage and resistance. Lastly, Welgevallen plants were confirmed to be the first case of glufosinate‑ammonium, glyphosate and paraquat multiple herbicide resistance in a single ryegrass population.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Geen opsomming beskikbaar.
Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2024.