Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents
CITATION: Nassen, R. et al. 2014. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, 15(3):81-96, doi:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.1091.
The original publication is available at http://www.sajhivmed.org.za
HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS) sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood) and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for mental health and neurocognitive problems, as part of the routine monitoring of children attending antiretroviral clinics. This guideline is intended as a reference tool for HIV clinicians to support the early identification, screening and management of mental health disorders and/or CNS impairment in children and adolescents. This guideline covers mental disorders (section 1) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (section 2) among children and adolescents.