Perceptions of adolescents from the Sterkspruit area, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, regarding the underlying factors that have an impact on their right to adequate food

Rosseau, Carla Yvonne (2016-03)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: The government has an obligation to respect, protect and promote the right to food (RtF) as a social, economic and cultural human right. Failing to achieve these obligations could result in the violation of adolescents’ human right to food, to the detriment of their development and well-being. Objectives: This study aimed to gain insight into the perceptions and experiences of adolescents in the Sterkspruit area (Eastern Cape Province) regarding the underlying factors that have an impact on their Right to food. It endeavoured to determine preventative and promoting factors, investigated adolescents’ perceptions regarding the fulfilment of their RtF and explored whether female adolescents were more at risk for their RtF to be violated. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study using a mixed method approach was done in the Sterkspruit area of the Senqu sub-district in the Eastern Cape province. In-depth interviews were conducted with key informants (KI) while adolescents completed a self-administered questionnaire and participated in focus group discussions (FGD), which were gender and age based. Through content analysis of qualitative data, data was coded and grouped according to emerging themes using the ATLAS.ti 7 text analysis programme. Findings from the quantitative data were regarded as significant with a p-value of <0.05. Results: Eight KIs were interviewed and six FGD were conducted in isiIsiXhosa with 50 adolescents (32 female and 18 male) aged 10 to 19 years. Preventative and promoting factors for the realisation of the RtF were identified. Preventative factors included the inappropriate utilisation of the child support grant (CSG), the high unemployment rate, implementation of punishment, and adolescents’ involvement in risky behaviour such as criminal activities and female sex trading. Adolescents’ RtF was also affected by the adequacy and variety of the diet consumed. A statistical significant difference (p=0.035) proved that females enjoyed a wider variety of food items. Hunger due to household poverty, limited variety of food and child-headed households prevented adolescents’ RtF being realised. The National School Nutrition Programme and agricultural activities were regarded as factors contributing to food security. KIs regarded adolescents’ lack of involvement in agricultural activities as a barrier to addressing food security. Urban adolescents were more likely to have access to agrarian resources than adolescents residing in rural villages. Females were not identified as being more vulnerable for their RtF being violated. The government was identified as the main duty bearer responsible for the realisation of the RtF, but few participants identified adolescents’ responsibility as right-holders. An increased CSG, improved employment possibilities, improved provision of resources for agricultural activities, and education were seen as possible solutions to secure the adolescents’ RtF. Conclusion: While food insecurity and poverty persist, drastic measures are needed to achieve the progressive realisation of the RtF. The government is not efficient yet in taking sustainable measures in providing food security and work opportunities. The implementation of a rights-based approach is needed for the duty-bearers and right-holders to facilitate the progressive realisation of the RtF of adolescents in the Sterkspruit area.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Inleiding: Die regering moet toesien dat die reg tot voedsel (RtV) gerespekteer, beskerm en bevorder word as ’n maatskaplike, ekonomiese en kulturele mensereg. Indien die regering versuim om hierdie verpligting na te kom, kan dit lei tot skending van adolessente se mensereg tot voedsel, tot nadeel van hul ontwikkeling en welstand. Doelwit: Hierdie studie poog om insig te kry oor die persepsies en ervaringe van adolessente van die Sterkspruit omgewing (Oos-Kaap) aangaande onderliggende faktore wat hulle RtV beïnvloed. Dit word gedoen deur moontlike voorkomende of bevorderende faktore te identifiseer, adolessente se persepsies aangaande die vervulling van hul RtV te ondersoek, asook of vroulike adolessente meer blootgestel word aan die skending van hulle RtV. Metode: ’n Deursnee, beskrywende studie met 'n gemengde metode benadering is uitgevoer in die Sterkspruit area van die Senqu sub-distrik (Oos-Kaap). In-diepte onderhoude is gevoer met sleutel-informante (SI), terwyl adolessente deelgeneem het aan fokusgroepbesprekings (FGB) wat geslag- en ouderdom-spesifiek was, nadat hulle ’n self-geadministreerde vraelys voltooi het. Die inhoud van die kwalitatiewe data is geanaliseer en gekodeer. Kodes is saamgegroepeer volgens temas wat ontwikkel het. Die ATLAS.ti 7 teksanalise program is gebruik vir hierdie doel. Bevindinge van die kwantitatiewe data is beskou as beduidend volgens ’n p-waarde van <0.05. Resultate: Agt indiepte onderhoude is gevoer met SI en ses FGB is gevoer in isiXhosa met 50 adolessente (32 vroulik en 18 manlik), 10–19 jaar oud. Faktore wat die verwesenliking van adolessente se RtV voorkom of bevorder, is geïdentifiseer, naamlik ontoepaslike benutting van kindersorgtoelae, hoë werkloosheidsyfers, strafmaatreëls en adolessente se riskante gedrag, insluitend kriminele gedrag en transaksionele seks deur die vroulike adolessente. Die dieet se toereikendheid en verskeidenheid affekteer ook adolessente se RtV. ’n Statistiese beduidende verskil (p = 0.035) het bevind dat vroulike adolossente ’n groter verskeidenheid voedsel inneem. Honger, as gevolg van voedseltekorte in arm huishoudings, beperkte voedselverskeidenheid, huishoudings met kinders aan die hoof, voorkom die verwesenliking van adolessente se RtV. Die Nasionale Skole Voedingskema en landbou aktiwiteite is beskou as faktore wat voedselsekuriteit bevorder. SIs het gebrekkige betrokkenheid van adolessente in landbouaktiwitiete beskou as hindernisse om voedselsekuriteit aan te spreek. Stedelike adolessente was meer geneig om toegang tot landbou hulpbronne te hê as adolessente woonagtig in landelike dorpies. Vroue is nie geïdentifiseer as meer kwesbaar vir die skending van hul RtV nie. Die regering is geïdentifiseer as die hoof pligtedraer wat verantwoordelik is vir die progressiewe verwesenliking van adolessente se RtV. Die verhoging van kindersorgtoelae, meer werksgeleenthede, beter voorsiening van hulpbronne vir landbou aktiwiteite en onderrig was beskou as moontlike oplossings vir die verwesenliking van adolessente se RtV. Gevolgtrekking: Terwyl voedselonsekerheid en armoede voortduur, word drastiese stappe benodig vir die progressiewe verwesenliking van die reg op voldoende voedsel. Die regering het nog nie daarin geslaag om volhoubare maatreëls in te stel om voedselsekerheid en werksgeleenthede te verseker in hierdie studiepopulasie nie. Die implementering van die regsgebasseerde benadering deur die pligtedraers en regtehouers is nodig om die progressiewe verwesenliking van die RtV van adolessente in die Sterkspruit area te fasiliteer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/98342
This item appears in the following collections: