Risk profile of port congestion : Cape Town container terminal case study

Potgieter, Lilian (2016-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2016.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Supply chains, both complex and simple, are often exposed to various levels of risk stemming from different sources. These risks, whether minor or critical, require a certain level of management to mitigate and control frequency and overall impact. The South African maritime industry suffers from a number of risks, with the most prominent source of risk stemming from vessel and vehicle congestion within port terminals. In most cases, this is due to a lack of port capacity, lack of operator productivity, severe weather conditions and/or system-related challenges. In South Africa, one of the most important ports – the Port of Cape Town – faces two risks associated with port congestion, namely, severe weather and system delays. These two risks place pressure on port management and can cause inefficiencies in both port operations and the operations of international shipping companies. This study focuses on developing risk profiles of current and future port congestion within the Cape Town Container Terminal, with the primary objective being to highlight the importance of managing weather- and system-related port congestion within the container terminal. The secondary objective of the study is to suggest areas for future research on port congestion in other South African ports. Overall, the purpose of this study is to offer some insight into port congestion as a risk to efficiency for the benefit of both South African ports and international shipping companies. The research conducted for this study was done in two phases, namely, exploratory secondary research followed by self-conducted primary research. The secondary literature research provided background information on the maritime industry, the Port of Cape Town, and port congestion in the World and in South Africa specifically. In addition, the primary data collected was used to analyse current port congestion within the container terminal, create forecasts of future congestion, and finally develop risk profiles of port congestion within the Cape Town Container Terminal specifically. The findings of this study indicate that vessel related congestion, specifically anchorage congestion, is the main risk within the Cape Town Container Terminal, while landside port congestion is likely to become a less severe risk over time. This is, however, likely to be influenced by truck queuing time and the 2015 truck ban, which were not included in this study. The findings of this study indicate that maritime-side risk is of greater concern, and that risk mitigation strategies should be considered in the present and the future. In conclusion, it is recommended that further research be conducted on the cost implications of port congestion, to determine the need for long-term financial investments, and on the impact of vehicle queuing and the proposed truck ban. Furthermore, it is suggested that a similar study be conducted on port congestion within the Durban Port container terminal, as research indicates that this terminal is also prone to port congestion issues.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Voorsieningskettings, beide kompleks en eenvoudig, word gereeld aan verskeie grade van risiko uit verskillende bronne blootgestel. Hierdie risiko’s, hetsy klein of krities, benodig ‘n sekere vlak van bestuur om die frekwensie en algehele uitwerking te versag en te beheer. Die Suid-Afrikaanse maritieme industrie ervaar ‘n aantal risiko’s. Die mees prominente bron van risiko is die opeenhoping van skepe en voertuie binne hawens. In die meeste gevalle is dit as gevolg van ‘n tekort aan kapasiteit, lae arbeidsproduktiwiteit, swaar weersomstandighede en/of stelselverwante uitdagings. Een van Suid-Afrika se belangrikste hawens – Kaapstad-hawe – staar twee risiko’s verwant aan hawe-opeenhoping in die gesig, naamlik swaar weersomstandighede en stelselvertragings. Hierdie twee risiko’s plaas druk op hawe-bestuur en kan ondoeltreffendhede in beide hawebedrywighede en vir internasionale skeepsmaatskappye veroorsaak. Hierdie studie fokus op die ontwikkeling van risikoprofiele van huidige en toekomstige opeenhoping binne die Kaapstad-houerterminaal, met die primêre doel om die belangrikheid van die bestuur van weer- en stelselverwante opeenhopings binne die houerterminaal te beklemtoon. Die sekondêre doel van die studie is om toekomstige navorsing in hawe-opeenhoping in ander Suid-Afrikaanse hawens voor te stel. In die algemeen was die doel van hierdie studie om insig te kry in hawe-opeenhoping as ‘n risiko tot doeltreffendheid, tot die voordeel van beide Suid-Afrikaanse hawens en internasionale skeepsmaatskappye. Die navorsing vir hierdie studie het in twee fases plaasgevind, naamlik, ondersoekende sekondêre navorsing gevolg deur self-uitgevoerde primêre navorsing. Die sekondêre literatuurnavorsing verskaf agtergrondinligting oor die maritieme industrie, Kaapstad-hawe en hawe-opeenhoping in die wêreld en spesifiek in Suid-Afrika. Primêre data is gebruik om die huidige hawe-opeenhoping binne die haweterminaal te ontleed, vooruitskattings vir toekomstige opeenhoping te maak, en risikoprofiele van hawe-opeenhoping binne spesifiek die Kaapstad-houerterminaal te ontwikkel. Die bevindinge van die studie dui daarop dat skeepverwante opeenhoping, meer spesifiek vasmeerplekopeenhoping, die vernaamste risiko in Kaapstad-houerterminaal is, terwyl landopeenhoping oor tyd ‘n mindere risiko sal word. Hierdie sal egter moontlik deur voertuigtoustaantyd en die 2015-trokverbod beïnvloed word wat nie in hierdie studie in berekening gebring is nie. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie dui daarop dat maritieme risikoverligtingstrategieë huidiglik en vir die toekoms oorweeg moet word. Ten slotte word daar aanbeveel dat verdere navorsing oor die koste-implikasie van hawe-opeenhoping gedoen moet word om die behoefte aan langtermyn finansiële beleggings te bepaal, en om die impak van voertuie wat toustaan en die voorgestelde trokverbod te bepaal. Daar word ook voorgestel dat ‘n soortgelyke studie op hawe-opeenhoping binne die Durban-hawehouerterminaal gedoen word, aangesien navorsing daarop dui dat hierdie terminaal neig na hawe-opeenhopingsprobleme.

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