The role of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) in cardioprotection

dc.contributor.advisorSalie, Ruduwaanen_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorLochner, Amandaen_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorMarais, Ernaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorAlsalhin, Aisha Khlani Hassanen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Biomedical Sciences: Medical Physiology.en_ZA
dc.descriptionThesis (MScMedSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2015.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is well-established that transient activation of the β-adrenergic signalling pathway with ligands such as isoproterenol, formoterol and dobutamine, elicits cardioprotection against subsequent long periods of ischaemia. Initially the focus was on the β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors (β1-AR, β2-AR), but recently the β3-AR also emerged as a potential target in the treatment of heart disease. In heart failure, β1- and β2-AR are typically known to be down-regulated while β3-ARs, on the other hand, are up-regulated (Moniotte et al., 2001). Thus, it has become important to examine the significance of the β3-AR and its downstream signalling under similar states of stress. It has been shown that β3-AR stimulation is resistant to short term agonist-promoted desensitization in vitro and in vivo (Liggett et al., 1993) and after being activated, this receptor is able to convey continual intracellular signals (Lafontan et al., 1994). Thus, it could be an ideal target for therapeutic intervention, also in ischaemic heart disease. We hypothesized that selective β3-AR stimulation during ischaemia / reperfusion may be cardioprotective, whereas selective inhibition of this receptor may prove useful in the end stages of sustained ischaemia and early reperfusion. Methods: The isolated working rat heart, subjected to 35 min of regional ischaemia (RI) and 60 min reperfusion was used as model. The β3-AR agonist (BRL37344) (1 μM) or antagonist (SR59230A) (0.1 μM) were applied as follows: (i) before 35 min RI (PT), (ii) during the last 10 min of RI (PerT) and /or (iii) at the onset of reperfusion (PostT) and (iv) administration of BRL37344 during the last 10 min of RI BRL37344 (PerT) was followed by SR59230A during first 10 min of reperfusion SR59230A (Post). The contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in β3-AR was assessed, using the non-specific NOS inhibitor, L-NAME (50 μM). Endpoints were functional recovery and infarct size. In another set of experiments BRL37344 and SR59230A were applied according to the same protocols, but the left ventricle was dissected from the heart and freeze clamped at 10 min reperfusion for Western blot analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK p44/p42), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Data were analyzed with one or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Administration of the selective β3-AR agonist (BRL37344) (1μM) before 35 min RI (BRL37344 (PT), significantly reduced infarct size when compared to the non-pretreatment group (NPT) (21.43±2.52 vs 43.17±1.20, p < 0.001). BRL37344 had similar effects on infarct size when applied during the last 10 min of regional ischaemia BRL37344 (PerT) (14.94±2.34, vs NPT, p < 0.001) or at the onset of reperfusion BRL37344 (PostT) (19.06±1.81, vs NPT, p < 0.001). When BRL37344 was applied as a (PerT+PostT) strategy, infarct size was once again significantly reduced (20.55±2.01 vs 43.17±1.20, p <0.001). In contrast, administration of the β3-antagonist SR59230A according to the same protocol did not reduce infarct size and values similar to those of untreated hearts (NPT) were obtained. Surprisingly, when BRL37344 was applied during the last 10 min of regional ischaemia followed by the administration of the β3-AR antagonist (SR59230A) at the onset of reperfusion, [BRL37344 (PerT) & SR59230A (PostT)], infarct size was significantly reduced to 20.78±3.02 (p <0.001 vs NPT and SR59230A (PerT + PostT). Involvement of nitric oxide (NO) was shown since the reduction in infarct size elicited by BRL37344 was totally abolished by, L-NAME, when administered in combination with BRL37344 for 10 minutes prior to RI or at the onset of reperfusion for 10 minutes (% infarct size: 41.48±3.18 and 35.75±3.54, p <0.001 vs BRL37344 (PT) and BRL37344 (PostT), respectively. Western blot results show that PKB/Akt is activated by BRL37344 regardless of the time of administration. The intervention BRL37344 (PerT+PostT), exhibited the most significant phosphorylation of PKB/Akt (fold increase: 14.2±3.71, p<0.01 vs NPT and p<0.05 vs BRL37344 (PostT). In addition, BRL37344 (PT), (PerT), (PostT) and [BRL37344 (PerT) +SR59230A (PostT)] showed significant activation of this kinase (2.92±0.22, 5.54±0.43, 4.73±0.47, and 6.60±0.78, respectively). ERKp44/p42 however, was not significantly activated by any of the treatments. Phosphorylation of eNOS and GSK-3β was significant only in the BRL37344 (PerT+PostT) and [BRL37344 (PerT) + SR59230A (PostT)] groups. The activation of eNOS-S-1177 in the BRL37344 (PerT+PostT) group was (2.82±0.46, p<0.01 and 0.05 vs NPT and BRL37344 (PostT), respectively) and in the [BRL37344 (PerT) + SR59230A (PostT)] group was (2.26±0.48, p<0.05 vs NPT). A very significant increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β was seen in the same two groups (68.8±7.73, p<0.001 vs NPT and 25.5±5.42 vs NPT, p<0.05, respectively). Conclusion: β3-AR has potent cardioprotective effects when administered either before, during and after ischaemia during early reperfusion as indicated by the reduction in infarct size as well as activation of PKB, GSK-3β and eNOS. These beneficial effects can be linked to NO production through activation of eNOS.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit is bekend dat verbygaande aktivering van die β-adrenerge seinpad, met ligande soos isoproterenol, formoterol en dobutamien, die hart teen daaropvolgende lang periodes van iskemie beskerm. Aanvanklik was die fokus op die β1- en β2-adrenerge reseptore (β1-AR, β2-AR); maar onlangs is ook die β3-AR as 'n potensiële teiken in die behandeling van hartsiektes ge-eien. In hartversaking, is dit bekend dat β1- en β2-AR afreguleer word, terwyl β3-ARs, aan die ander kant, opreguleer word (Moniotte et al., 2001). Dit het dus belangrik geword om die belang van die β3-AR en sy stroomaf seinpad onder soortgelyke strestoestande te ondersoek. Dit is bewys dat β3-AR stimulasie teen korttermyn agonis geïnduseerde desensitisering in vitro en in vivo bestand is (Liggett et al., 1993) en wanneer geaktiveer, is hierdie reseptor in staat om intrasellulêre seine voortdurend oor te dra (Granneman, 1995). Dit kan dus ‘n ideale teiken vir terapeutiese intervensie wees, ook in iskemiese hartsiekte. Ons hipotetiseer dat selektiewe β3-AR stimulasie tydens iskemie / reperfusie kardiobeskermende mag wees, terwyl selektiewe inhibisie van hierdie reseptor effektief kan wees in die eindstadia van volgehoue iskemie en vroeë herperfusie. Metodes: Die geïsoleerde werkende rothart, onderwerp aan 35 min van streeksiskemie (SI) en 60 min herperfusie, is as model gebruik. Die β3-AR agonis (BRL37344) (1μM) of antagonis (SR59230A) (0.1 μM), is as volg toegedien: (i) voor 35 min SI (PT), (ii) gedurende die laaste 10 min van SI (PerT) en / of (iii) tydens die aanvang van herperfusie (PostT) en (iv) gedurende die laaste 10 min van SI is BRL toediening BRL37344 (PerT) gevolg deur SR59230A tydens die eerste 10 min van herperfusie SR59230A (Post). Die rol van stikstofoksiedsintase (NOS) in β3-AR is met behulp van die nie-spesifieke NOS inhibitor, L-NAME (50 μM) ondersoek. Eindpunte was funksionele herstel tydens herperfusie en infarktgrootte. In 'n ander reeks eksperimente is BRL37344 en SR59230A volgens dieselfde protokolle toegedien, maar die linker ventrikel is uit die hart gedissekteer na 10 min herperfusie en gevriesklamp vir Western klad analise van ekstrasellulêre-sein gereguleerde kinase (ERK p44/p42), proteïen kinase B (PKB/Akt), glikogeen sintase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), en endoteel stikstofoksied- sintase (eNOS). Data is met een of twee-rigting variansie analise (ANOVA) ontleed. Resultate: Administrasie van die selektiewe β3-AR agonis (BRL37344) (1μM) voor 35 min SI BRL37344 (PT), het die infarktgrootte beduidend verminder vergeleke met die nie-behandelde groep (NPT) (21.43±2.52 vs 43.17±1.20, p<0.001). BRL37344 het ‘n soortgelyke effek op infarktgrootte wanneer dit gedurende die laaste 10 min van streeksiskemie BRL37344 (PerT) (14.94±2.34, vs NPT, p<0.001) of by die aanvang van herperfusie (BRL37344 (PostT) (19.06±1.81, vs NPT, p<0.001) toegedien word. Wanneer BRL37344 as 'n (PerT+PostT) strategie toegedien is, was infarktgrootte weereens beduidend verlaag (20.55±2.01 vs 43.17±1.20, p<0.001). In teenstelling hiermee, het administrasie van die β3-antagonis SR59230A volgens dieselfde protokol, nie infarktgrootte verminder nie en waardes soortgelyk aan dié van onbehandelde harte (NPT) is verkry. Interessant, wanneer BRL37344 gedurende die laaste 10 min van streeksiskemie toegedien is, gevolg deur die administrasie van die β3-AR antagonis (SR59230A) by die aanvang van herperfusie, [BRL37344(PerT) & SR59230A(PostT)], was infarktgrootte aansienlik verminder tot 20.78±3.02 (p<0.001 vs NPT en SR59230A (PerT+PostT). Die betrokkenheid van stikstofoksied (NO) is waargeneem deurdat die vermindering in infarktgrootte ontlok deur BRL37344, heeltemal deur L-NAME opgehef is, wanneer dit in kombinasie met BRL37344 vir 10 minute voor SI of by die aanvang van herperfusie vir 10 minute toegedien is (% infarktgrootte: 41.48±3.18 en 35.75±3.54, p<0.001 vs BRL37344 (PT) en BRL37344 (PostT) onderskeidelik). Western kladresultate toon dat PKB/Akt deur BRL37344 geaktiveer word ongeag die tyd van die administrasie. Die intervensie BRL37344 (PerT+PostT), toon die mees beduidende fosforilering van PKB/Akt (voudige toename: 14.2±3.71, p<0.01 vs NPT en p<0.05 vs BRL37344 (PostT). Daarbenewens het BRL37344 (PT), (PerT), (PostT) en [BRL37344 (PerT) + SR59230A (PostT)] ook beduidende aktivering van hierdie kinase tot gevolg gehad (2.92±0.22, 5.54±0.43, 4.73±0.47 en 6.60±0.78, onderskeidelik). ERKp44/p42 is egter nie deur enige van die behandelings geaktiveer nie. Fosforilering van eNOS en GSK-3β was net beduidend in die BRL37344 (PerT+PostT) en [BRL37344 (PerT) + SR59230A (PostT)] groepe. Die aktivering van eNOS-S-1177 was beduidend in die BRL37344 (PerT+PostT) en [BRL37344 (PerT) + SR59230A (PostT)] groepe. 'n Baie beduidende toename in fosforilering van GSK-3β is in dieselfde twee groepe (68.8±7.73, p<0.001 en 25.5±5.42, p<0.05 vs NPT onderskeidelik) waargeneem. Gevolgtrekking: β3-AR het kragtige kardiobeskermende effekte wanneer dit, hetsy voor, tydens en na iskemie gedurende vroeë herperfusie toegedien word, soos deur die vermindering in infarktgrootte sowel as die aktivering van PKB, GSK-3β en eNOS aangedui is. Hierdie voordelige effekte kan aan NO produksie deur aktivering van eNOS gekoppel word.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxxii, 92 pages : illustrationsen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectBeta adrenoceptorsen_ZA
dc.subjectIschaemia / reperfusion injuryen_ZA
dc.subjectCardiovascular system -- Diseasesen_ZA
dc.subjectSignalling pathwaysen_ZA
dc.subjectIschemia -- Preventionen_ZA
dc.titleThe role of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) in cardioprotectionen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA

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