Toepassings van stelselsdenke op ontwikkelingsteorie

Kleynhans, Theodorus Ernst (1991)

Proefskrif (D. Phil.) -- Universiteit van Stellenbosch, 1991.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Attempting to understand the development and welfare of mankind is a classic problem. The formulation of development theory since World War Two and of welfare economic theory since the beginning of the twentieth century has resulted in this · question receiving more formal theoretical attention. These theoretical approaches form part of the Newtonian-Cartesian scientific tradition and aim to explain development and welfare, or the lack thereof, in terms of cause-effect relationships. This analytical-reductionist method of explanation has its origins in the attempts by Newton and Descartes to explain physical phenomena. Eventually positivism used this approach to explain social phenomena. An essential characteristic of the analytical-reductionist scientific approach is the assumption that a given goal is an effect caused by manipulating some critical environm·ental factor. According to this approach the meaning of human development is seen as necessarily the same for both the development planner and the target group. The perception therefore exists that human development can be caused by the provision of credit, technical knowledge, infrastructure, a freer market and more political freedom. More rigorous control over public servants is regarded as a guarantee for more effective policy making. Similarly, strict top-down control within firms is also seen as a prerequisite for efficient development planning. Various welfare and development theories were investigated against this background in order to discover how each conceptualize human development. Neo-Classical, Pigouvian and New Welfare economics, public choice theory, modernization theory, Marxist, Neo-Marxist and dependency theory, the poverty approach, Institutional and N eo-Institutional economic theory, an ecologically conscious approach, psycho-analysis and neo-psycho-analysis, behaviorism and neo-behaviorism, organismic psychological theory, an anthropological approach and a Christian-humanitarian approach all came under scrutiny. Specific attention was given as to whether so-called essential aspects were emphasised. In order to analyse these various perspectives on human development a threefold classification of universal development dimensions was used, namely the aspirational, contextual and ability dimensions. The investigation shows that welfare and development theories which conceptualize the aspirational dimension in a narrow way, also conceptualize narrowly the context within which a person exists and develops, as well as narrowly defining what is seen as relevant abilities. For example, the modernization theory, which emphasises material aspirations and interprets man-resource relationships primarily as exploitative and interpersonal relation_ships as competitive. The human abilities which are seen as relevant are those abilities that enable one to utilize production and consumer goods technically, and to allocate them efficiently. Thus the only relevant question is that of how to implement efficiently a given goal, such as increasing one's standard of living. The goal itself is not challenged by consideration of other socio-cultural, ethical of aesthetic aspirations. An appropriate orientation within one's physical-social environment requires that a variety of aspirations should be considered rather than the mere examination of efficient ·ways and means of manipulating one's environment in search of a specific goal. Such orientation is emphasized by anthropological, Christian-humanitarian and ecological perspectives. As a result of the Cartesian analytical-reductionist scientific approach these perspectives became separated from other perspectives which emphasize manipulation abilities. But if harmful personal, social and ecological side-effects are to avoided, development planning should enhance both orientation and manipulation abilities. The social systems approach should be seen as complementary to the analyticalreductionist scientific approach. The social systems approach provides a common frame of reference whereby inappropriate assumptions regarding human behaviour can be clarified. This framework proves advantageous for transdisciplinary discourse because it provides common ground for effective developmental planning in both the private and public sectors. If the development of society is to be encouraged more effectively, an organization must also develop internally through a process of organizational redesign so that it becomes a learning organization. The social systems approach provides the conceptual foundation to facilitate such a redesign process and thus enables organizations to deal more effectively with complex development problems within a complex value-loaded Southern African context.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die vraagstuk van hoe die mens se ontwikkeling en sy welvaart benader kan word, kan as klassieke vraagstukke beskou word. Welvaartekonomiese- en ontwikkelingsteorie wat onderskeidelik sedert die begin van die twintigste eeu en sedert die Tweede Wereldoorlog beslag gekry het, het die bestudering van hierdie vraagstukke op 'n meer formele grondslag geplaas. Hierdie teoriee bet die ontwikkelingsproblematiek volgens die N ewtoniaans-Cartesiaanse wetenskaplike tradisie in terme van oorsaak-gevolg verwantskappe probeer verklaar. Hierdie analities-reduksionistiese verklaringswyse bet aanvanklik ontstaan om natuurverskynsels te verklaar. Die . positivisme het egter mettertyd hierdie benadering gebruik om sosiale verskynsels te probeer verduidelik. In terme van die ontwikkelingsproblematiek word 'n gegewe doel by die mens aanvaar wat veroorsaak kan word deur sy omgewing te manipuleer. Die analities-reduksionistiese denkwyse reduseer dan die ontwikkkelingsproblematiek tot die vraag oor wat die sogenaamde essensiele omgewingsf aktor is om te manipuleer om menslike ontwikkeling te veroorsaak. Hiermee word veronderstel dat die gewenste resultaat volgens die navorser of beplanner ook noodwendig vir die teikenpersoon gewens is en dat die teikenpersoon outomaties gunstig sal reageer op omgewingsmanipulasies soos die verskaffing van krediet, tegniese kennis, infrastruktuur, 'n vryer mark en groter politieke vryheid. Verder word veronderstel dat strenger beheer oor publieke ampsbekleers meer effektiewe beleidvoering waarborg en dat doeltreffende ontwikkelingsbeplanning veroorsaak kan word deur 'n ontwikkelingsorganisasie waar streng "bo-na-onder" beheer geld. Verskillende welvaart- en ontwikkelingsteoriee, soos die N eo-Klassieke, Pigouviaanse en Nuwe Welvaartekonomie, publieke keuseteorie en die moderniseringsteorie, die Marxistiese, Neo-Marxistiese en afhanklikheidsbenaderings, die armoedebenaderings, die Institusionele en Neo-Institusionele benaderings, ekologiebewuste ekonomiese benaderings, die psigo-analise en neo-psigo-analise, behaviorisme en neo-bebaviorisme, organismiese sielkunde, organisasieteoriee, 'n antropologiese benadering en 'n Christelik-humanitere benadering is in hierdie proefskrif ondersoek om te bepaal hoe menslike ontwikkeling telkens gekonseptualiseer is en wat, indien wel, as essensiele aspekte uitgesonder word. Vir hierdie doeleindes is gebruik gemaak van 'n cirievoudige klassifikasie van ontwikkelingsdimensies, naamlik die aspirasionele, kontekstuele- en vermoens dimensies van ontwikkeling. Uit die ondersoek het geblyk dat welvaart- en ontwikkelingsteoriee wat die mens se aspirasies eng konseptualiseer, ook sy konteks en ter sake vermoens eng interpreteer. As voorbeeld kan . genoem word dat die moderniseringsbenadering op die mens se materiele aspirasie klem le en daarmee saam die mens-hulpbron verwantskap primer as 'n eksploitasieverwantskap en interpersoonlike verwantskappe as kompetisieverwantskappe beskou. Al vermoens wat in hierdie geval as ter sake beskou word, is die mens se vermoe om tegnies en allokatief doeltreffend op te tree. Besinning oor toepaslike aspirasies word hiermee op die agtergrond geskuif sodat besin word oar hoe 'n vaste doel soos ekonomiese groei op die doeltreffendste wyse moontlik geYmplementeer kan word. Hierteenoor laat die antropologiese en Christelik-humanitere benadering byvoorbeeld die klem val op sosiale, kulturele, etiese en estetiese aspirasies wat in samehang met materiele aspirasies oorweeg moet word. Die Cartesiaanse skeiding het dus meegebring dat vakdissiplines wat onderskeidelik op die mens se manipulasievermoens van en orientasievermoens binne die mens se omgewing gerig is, geskei geraak het. Ontwikkelingsbeplanning behoort egter beide tipes vermoens te bevorder, anders volg daar onbedoelde skadelike newe-effekte van sosiale en ekologiese aard. Die sosiale stelselsbenadering as 'n aanvullende wetenskaplike benadering tot die analities-reduksionistiese wetenskaplike benadering bied 'n gemeenskaplike denkraamwerk om effektiewe transdissiplinere gesprekvoering te bevorder deur verskuilde, ontoepaslike aannames oor menslike gedrag na vore te bring. Dit bied die geleentheid vir meer effektiewe ontwikkelingsbeplanning. Hierdie benadering bied ook 'n stewige konseptuele grondslag om organisasies in die privaat- en openbare sektore te herontwerp tot lerende organisasies. Sulke organisasies is in st-aat om komplekse waardebelaaide ontwikkelingsprobleme soos ook binne die Suid-Afrikaanse koriteks meer effektief te hanteer.

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