Cytokine super-families affect adult stem cells : IL-6 and the skeletal muscle niche

Steyn, Paul (2011-03)

Thesis (MSc (Physiological Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2011.

Includes bibliography.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: IL-6 belongs to a cytokine super-family known to affect cell proliferation, although other family members are better characterized. Proliferation promoting factors (IL-6) compete with differentiation promoting factors (myogenic regulatory factors: MyoD and myogenin) to affect cell cycle. Cell cycle progression is assessed by determining the proportion of cells shifting from arrest to chromatin synthesis and mitosis phases (G0/G1 and S and G2/M respectively). Methods: This study assessed the effects of IL-6 on cell cycle progression and proliferation vs. differentiation of C2C12 skeletal myoblasts. Physiological doses (10 or 100 pg/ml) were compared to a high dose (10 ng/ml), with exposure lasting 48 hours (addition of IL-6 dose to proliferation medium at 0 and 24 hours). Acute signaling downstream of the IL-6 gp130 receptor was assessed after the first exposure. Results: Propidium iodide analysis of nuclear material using flow cytometry indicated shifts in forward scatter. Both Low and Medium doses shifted a greater proportion (p<0.05) of cells from G0/G1 to S and G2M phases at 24 hours and all doses resulted in the same shift (p<0.05) at the 48 hour time point. However, the High dose significantly (p<0.05) increased myogenin expression at the 48 hour time point. Microscopy indicated that confluence was prevented by low seeding density and did not influence the result. Cells harvested at 5 minutes post stimulation indicated that all doses significantly increased STAT3 phosphorylation. 10 minutes post stimulation the High dose group sustained elevated levels of STAT3 phosphorylation. Conclusions: Low and medium doses of IL-6 increase proliferation in a muscle satellite cell line by activating cell division and allowing myoblasts to remain in the active cell cycle. High doses of IL-6 increase differentiation by mediating upregulation of myogenic regulatory factors and this is thought to be due to prolonged STAT3 activation. Physiological control of myoblast behaviour by cytokines is evident and such control would be influenced by the severity of the endogenous cytokine response to various stimuli.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: IL-6 behoort aan n sitokien super-familie bekend vir die affektering van sel verspreiding, alhoewel ander familie lede beter gekenmerk is. Bevordering van verspreiding faktore (IL-6) kompeteer met bevordering van differensiasie fatore (myogenic regulatory factors: MyoD en myogenin) om die sel siklus te affekteer. Sel siklus progressie word geassesseer deur die bepaling van die proporsie selle wat verskuif van arrestasie na chromatien sintese en mitose fases (G0/G1 en S en G2/M onderskeidelik). Metodes: Hierdie studie het die effekte van IL-6 op die progressie van die sel siklus geassesseer asook die proliferasie vs. differensiasie van C2C12 skelet spier satelliet selle. Fisiologiese dosisse (10 en 100 pg/ml) was vergelyk tot n hoog dose (10 ng/ml), met blywende blootstelling van 48 uur (byvoeging van IL-6 dose tot verspreidings medium op 0 and 24 uur). Akute sein stroomaf van die IL-6 gp130 reseptor was ook geassesseer na die eerste blootstelling. Resultate: Propidium iodide analise van kern materiaal deur vloei sitometrie het voorwaarts verskuiwing aangedui. Beide Laag and Medium doses het n groter proporsie (p<0.05) selle verskuif van die G0/G1 tot die S en G2M fases na 24 uur en alle dosisse het gelei in die selfde verskuiwing (p<0.05) by die 48 huur tyd punt. Alhoewel die Hoog dose myogenin uitdrukking aansienlik (p<0.05) verhoog het na 48 uur. Mikroskopie het aangedui dat samevloeiing voorkom was deur n lae loting digtheid en dit het nie resultate geaffekteer nie. Selle wat geoes was 5 minute na stimulasie het aangedui dat alle dosisse STAT3 fosforilasie laat toeneem het. 10 minute na stimulasie het die Hoog dose groep volgehoue vlakke van STAT3 fosforilasie besit. Gevolgtrekkings: Laag en Medium dosisse van IL-6 verhoog verspreiding in n spier satelliet sel lyn deur die aktivering van sel deling en deur selle toe te laat om in die aktiewe sel siklus te bly. Hoog dosisse van IL-6 verhoog differensiase deur bemiddelende opstoot van myogenic regulatory factors en die gedagte is dat dit bewerkstellig word deur aanhoudende aktivering van STAT3. Fisiologies beheer van satelliet selle deur sitokiene is duidelik en die beheer sal beinvloed word deur die erns van die endogene sitokien reaksie op verskillende stimuli.

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