Future applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the South African brandy and distillation industry

De Bruyn, Natasha
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Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study shows the potential of near infrared spectroscopy for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of wine and brandy in the distilling industry. Wines intended for further processing by the distillation industry have to meet certain specifications to ensure an efficient and cost-effective distilling process with a suitable product yield. Certain compounds have, therefore, been recognised as significant quality parameters and through their regulation, a product of consistent quality can be ensured. These quality parameters include alcohol, total acid, volatile acid, total sulphur dioxide, total phenolics, reducing sugars and acetaldehyde concentrations and pH. The effective control of all these compounds in the wines prior to distillation, is critical to maintain the feasibility and efficiency of the process. Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) can be used as a rapid and accurate analytical method for the determination of alcohol concentrations in distilling and brandy base wine. The choice of path length for the liquid sampling cell is an important consideration. In this study, alcohol with its strong absorption of OH bands in the near infrared region was not significantly affected, but difference in path length showed a significant influence on the prediction of the volatile acid concentration in distilling wine. Very strong correlations were found between the spectral data and the alcohol concentration data in distilling wine (r = 0.99, SEP = 0.18% v/v, RER =30) and brandy base wine (r = 0.92, SEP = 0.18% v/v, RER = 11.1). Good predictions were obtained for the volatile acid content of brandy base wine (r = 0.85, SEP = 0.04 g.L-1 ) but better accuracy could be obtained by incorporating a wider concentration range and more sensitive, although not the accepted reference methods, such as HPLC and GC, into the modelling. In contrast to the brandy base wine, the much cruder, turbid distilling wine (r = 0.67, SEP = 0.33 g.L-1 ) yielded poor calibration results for volatile acid. FT-NIRS can also be used as a rapid screening method to measure the total acid content, pH and total phenol levels in brandy base wine samples. Satisfactory predictions were obtained for the total acid content (r = 0.89, SECV = 0.38 g.L-1 ), pH (r = 0.84, SEP = 0.09) and total phenol levels (r = 0.71, SEP = 16.4 mq.L" GAE). The SEP of all the parameters compared well with the SEL and were within acceptable limits. The range of the concentration measurements were, however, very narrow and the accuracy of these models (measured as the ratio of the range to the standard error of prediction) were all below 10, indicating that modelling of these parameters in brandy base wine should be attempted with reference values covering a wider range. Poor correlations and predictions were obtained between the wine spectral data and the acetaldehyde (r = 0.39 , SECV =1.45 rnq.L"), residual sugar (r = 0.58, SECV =0.49 mq.L" ) and total sulphur dioxide (r = 0.35, SEP = 10.9 mq.L" ) concentration data. The unique character of potstill distillates, originating from the grape cultivar, type and age of the oak casks, lends itself to the development and blending of different brandies. The process of blending and correcting the brandy is necessary to obtain a product and brand of established and recognised character. The brandy is generally divided into different classes prior to blending based on the degree of "smoothness" or "hardness" of the matured distillate as determined by a sensorial panel. The ideal would, however, be to replace this subjective evaluation method with a more objective approach, such as an instrumental method like NIRS. Near infrared spectroscopy showed potential to successfully discriminate and classify brandy samples in terms of their sensorial classification status. The near infrared spectra of unblended three-year old brandies were measured and discriminant analysis performed using the subjective sensory classification data of the brandy. SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) models were developed by calculating separate peA (principal component analysis) models for each of the classes for which qualitative analysis were required. An assessment of class membership of an unknown sample was made on the basis of the distance to the cluster centroid. Two types of NIRS instruments, a Fourier transform near infrared system and a diode array spectrophotometer were employed to examine the discriminatory abilities of NIRS. Excellent predictions (90.9%-100%) were obtained for the "smoothest" and "hardest" classes within the 2000 and 2001 seasons with FT-NIRS. For the diode array spectra reasonable classification data were obtained for all the classes within the 2000 and 2001 seasons, as well as an excellent classification rate (100%) of the smoothest class in the 1999 season. Prediction results for class membership of the brandy samples from the three season's combined data did not deliver satisfactory discriminatory results. By applying NIRS and SIMCA, rapid and objective classification of brandy samples within seasonal context can be established to enhance the blending processes. Having accurate reference data in the calibration set is essential in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The precision (usually decided by blind duplicate determination) of the reference data serves as the performance target for correlation-based near infrared analysis. The differences between reference values obtained from two independent laboratories and the Foss Winescan FT 120, which is also a predictive method, for the alcohol and volatile acid determinations in distilling wine and between two independent laboratories for the measurement of the total sulphur dioxide content, were investigated. ANOVA and post-hoc analysis (Bonferroni testing) revealed statistically significant differences (p<O.OS)between all three measurements for the volatile acid analysis. One laboratory differed significantly from the other two measurements in its measurement of the alcohol content in distilling wine. A paired t-test performed on the two laboratories' values obtained for total sulphur dioxide revealed statistically significant differences (p<O.OS) between the two sets of results. This study restated the importance of obtaining reliable reference data for calibration purposes to maintain the efficiency and accuracy and therefore the reputability of NIRS as an accurate and reliable analytical method.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie dui op die potensiaal van naby infrarooi spektroskopie (NIRS) vir beide die kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe analise van wyn en brandewyn in die distillasie industrie. Sekere spesifikasies word gestel waaraan wyn met voldoen voor dit verdere prosessering tydens distillasie kan ondergaan. Die regulering van wynkwaliteit is noodsaaklik om die distilleringsproses ekonomies volhoubaar te maak. Sekere komponente in die wyn het 'n direkte invloed op die kwaliteit van die eindproduk en word beskou as betekenisvolle parameters wat beheer moet word om 'n produk van konstante hoë kwaliteit te lewer. Hierdie parameters sluit alkohol, titreerbare suur- en vlugtige suurinhoud, asook die pH, totale swaweidioksied, totale fenol vlakke, reduserende suikers en asetaldehied konsentrasies in. Die regulering van al hierdie komponente in die wyne is essensieel voor die aanvang van distillasie om die effektiwiteit en produktiwiteit van die proses te verseker. Fourier transformasie naby-infrarooi spektroskopie (FT-NIRS) kan benut word as 'n vinnige en akkurate analitiese metode om die alkohol konsentrasie in stook- en rabatwyn te bepaal. 'n Geskikte padlengte kuvet moet gekies word vir die ontleding van vloeistof monsters met NIRS. In hierdie studie is gevind dat die voorspelling van alkoholkonsentrasie in wyn, nie soseer beïnvloed is deur die keuse van padlengte nie. 'n Vlugtige komponent soos asynsuur, wat die maatstaf van die vlugtige suurinhoud van die wyn is, word egter regstreeks beïnvloed deur die keuse van padlengte. 'n Sterk korrelasie is gevind in die datastel vir die alkoholinhoud van die stookwyn (r = 0.99, SEP = 0.18% v/v, RER = 30) en rabatwyn (r = 0.92, SECV = 0.18% v/v, RER = 11.1). Baie goeie voorspellings is ook gevind vir die vlugtige suurinhoud van rabatwyn (r = 0.85, SEP = 0.04 g.L-1). Die akkuraatheid van die metode (uitgedruk as die RER waarde) het egter aangedui dat 'n wyer konsentrasie omvang en meer akkurate verwysingswaardes gebruik moet word om 'n geskikte model vir vlugtige suur kwantifikasie in rabatwyn te bewerkstellig. In teenstelling met die resultate verkry vir die rabatwyn, het die ruwer, turbiede stookwyn swak gekalibreer vir die vlugtige suurinhoud (r = 0.67, SEP = 0.33 g.L-1 ). FT-NIRS kan ook gebruik word as 'n vinnige seleksie metode om titreerbare suur vlakke, pH en totale fenolinhoud van rabatwyn monsters te bepaal. Sterk korrelasies is in die datastel gevind vir die titreerbare suurinhoud (r = 0.89, SECV = 0.38 g.L-1 ), pH (r = 0.84, SEP = 0.09) en totale fenol vlakke (r = 0.71, SEP = 16.4 rnq.L" GAE) van rabatwyn. Die SEP waardes verkry vanaf die NIRS bepalings het baie goed vergelyk met die standaard foute wat verkry is vir die chemiese bepalings. Die konsentrasie omvang van die verwysingswaardes was, egter, beperk en die akkuraatheid van die NIRS modelle (uitgedruk as die verhouding tussen die konsentrasie omvang en die standaard fout van voorspelling) was laer as 10. Dit het daarop gedui dat die NIRS kalibrasie van die parameters eerder uitgevoer moet word met monsters wat 'n wyer konsentrasie omvang dek en gemeet is met meer sensitiewe analitiese metodes soos HPLC en GC. Die kalibrasie en voorspelling van die asetaldehied inhoud (r = 0.39 , SECV =1.45 rnq.L"), reduserende suiker konsentrasie (r = 0.58, SECV =0.49 mq.L" ) en totale swaweldioksiedinhoud (r = 0.35, SEP = 10.9 rnq.L" ) het onaanvaarbare voorspellings gelewer. Die unieke karakter van potketel distillate wat bepaal word deur die druifkultivar, tipe en ouderdom van die eikehoutvate, bied die potensiaal vir die ontwikkeling en versnyding van verskillende style brandewyn. In 'n poging om 'n produk en handelsnaam van erkende en gevestigde karakter te verkry, moet die brandewyn eers versny word na veroudering. Die brandewyn word geklassifiseer in verskillende style op grond van sensoriese gehalte. NIRS is gebruik as 'n vinnige tegniek om te onderskei tussen verskillende style onversnyde drie jaar-oue brandewyn. SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) modelle is ontwerp deur aparte PCA (hoof komponent analise) modelle vir elke klas waarvoor kwalitatiewe analise vereis is, te ontwikkel. 'n Skating van klas lidmaatskap van 'n onbekende monster is gemaak deur die afstand van die monster na die groepsmiddelpunt te bereken. Twee soorte NIRS instrumente, 'n FT-NIR en 'n diode array spektrofotometer is gebruik tydens die studie om die diskrimineringsvermoë van elk te ondersoek. Uitstekende voorspellings (90.9%-100%) is gekry vir die "sagste" en "hardste" klasse binne die 2000 en 2001 seisoene met FTStellenbosch NIRS. Met die diode array spektra is redelike klassifikasie resultate verkry vir al die klasse binne die 2000 en 2001 seisoene, asook 'n uitstekende klassifikasie (100%) vir die sagste klas binne die 1999 seisoen. Voorspellings vir klas lidmaatskap van die brandewyn monsters vir die drie seisoene se gekombineerde data het egter onaanvaarbare diskriminasie resultate gelewer. NIRS en SIMCA sal 'n vinnige en objektiewe klassifikasie proses van onversnyde brandewyn monsters kan meebring wat tot voordeel van die versnydings- en produksieproses sal wees. Hierdie voorspellings sal egter binne seisoensverband moet geskied. Akkurate verwysingsdata in die kalibrasie datastel is 'n essensiële fasset van naby infrarooi spektroskopie. Die presisie (bepaal deur blinde duplikaat bepalngs) van die verwysingsdata dien as 'n prestasie teiken vir korrelasie-gebaseerde naby infrarooi voorspellings. Die verskille tussen die data verkry vir die alkohol- en vlugtige suurinhoud van stookwyn deur twee onafhanklike laboratoriums en 'n instrumentele metode (Foss Winescan FT 120) asook die verskille tussen die data verkry van twee laboratoriums vir die totale swaweidioksied metings, is ondersoek. ANOVA en post-hoc toetse het aangedui dat al die data verkry vir die vlugtige suur bepalings, statisties betekenisvol van mekaar verskil het (p<0.05). Vir die alkohol bepalings in stookwyn, het die data verkry van een laboratorium betekensvol verskil van die ander twee datastelle. Gepaarde t-toetse uitgevoer op die data verkry vir totale swaweldioksiedinhoud, het ook betekinisvolle verskille aangedui tussen die twee laboratoriums. Hierdie studie het die belangrikheid van betroubare verwysingsdata vir kalibrasie doeleindes beklemtoon, veral waar 'n tegniek soos NIRS se werksverrigting afhang van die akkuraatheid van dié waardes.
Thesis (MSc Food Sc )--Stellenbosch University, 2003.
Brandy industry -- South Africa, Distilling industries -- South Africa, Near infrared spectroscopy, Dissertations -- Food science, Theses -- Food science