SUNScholar will be down for routine maintenance from 2018-12-11 10:00 SAST.

The management and development of multi-cultural social work practice in the South African National Defence Force

Pretorius, Andre Johannes (2002-12)

Thesis (DPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2002.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Multi-cultural social work practice necessitates that the social worker possesses specific knowledge and practice skills in order to render a competent service to a diverse client system. To date, the SANDF does not possess any definite guidelines regarding multi-cultural social work practice. Consequently social work practitioners are ill-equipped to render a needs-based, multi-cultural competent service to the culturally different client system. The purpose of this study, was to develop theoretical and practical guidelines for multi-cultural social work practice within the SANDF. An attempt is made to ensure that the social service delivery system is attentive to cultural diversity among clients, whilst providing social work interventions to the client system. The objectives of the study were: firstly, to present a profile of the current consumers of social work services within the SANDF; secondly, to reflect on the nature and function of military social work within the SANDF, and to investigate the need to incorporate multi-cultural social work practice into the military setting; thirdly, to determine how the existing social work programmes in the SANDF are meeting the needs of the client system of diverse origin and culture; fourthly, to investigate the extent to which the social worker gives attention to the different cultural backgrounds of the client system; and fifthly, to explore the knowledge and practice skills needed by the social work practitioner to render multi-cultural social work services in the military setting. The study was confined to a purposive sample of 557 clients to assess their need for multi-cultural social work services. They were representative of the unique diversity in ethnic and cultural heritage, gender, and religious affiliations. The results were analysed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Structured interviews were conducted with 16 key figures in social work management in order to assess how existing social work programmes have been designed and are managed to meet the requirements of multi-cultural social work. The results were also analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, group interviews with a randomly selected sample of 45 social work officers [production workersl, were conducted to determine their knowledge and perceptions of and attitudes towards multi-cultural social work and to investigate the extent to which they were attentive to the cultural backgrounds of clients when rendering social work services. These results were again analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The empirical study enabled the researcher to draw certain conclusions. From the client system's responses it was obvious that social workers should be aware of the client system's cultural, ethnic and/or religious background. Social work managers on the other hand must be skilled in the management of a multi-cultural social work personnel system. The processes used during strategic planning, which should always be preceded by an environmental study, would have an effect on service rendering within multi-cultural social work practice. Most social work programmes have been adapted to suit the needs of a diverse client system. The research results pointed out that the DSW's business plan should focus more on developmental issues like HIV/AIDS. The majority of the social work managers regarded their service rendering as being culturally competent. Although certain misconceptions were evident, social work practitioners do understand the meaning of a multi-cultural competent service rendering. Social work practitioners are not clear whether their cultural, ethnic and/or language background has an influence on their service rending. Concerning communication it was pointed out that communication in a person's mother tongue is most effective during social work intervention. Although all social work approaches are utilised by the practitioners, their overall theoretical knowledge and skills application of these approaches are questionable. In the light of these aspects confusion exists amongst the respondents as to whether social work programmes are meeting the needs of a multi-cultural client system. A number of recommendations flow from the findings and conclusions. The DSW's business plan should focus more on developmental social work aspects, and should continuously stress the importance of having a diverse knowledge and skills base of the most significant models and approaches. The social work delivery system requires more theoretical knowledge and skills in the management and implementation of a multi-culturally competent social work service, and should be skilled in how to convert social work programmes into culturally competent programmes. The workers should further be competent at addressing problems experienced within their own cultural/ethnic background, before engaging in any social work intervention with a diverse client system. Social workers should further be empowered regarding the role, function and implementation of social development strategies within the daily service rendering and thus be guided to work in a multi-cultural social work environment. In the broader sense, staff in each social work office and/or section should identify the stumbling blocks that communication has on their service delivery. Training programmes should be developed for preparing or ongoing education of the social service delivery system regarding cultural competence. Further research should be undertaken concerning factors such as: decreasing stress experienced by social workers towards a diverse client system; the effectiveness of social work programmes in reaching cultural competence; and lastly, the effect of social work management on culturally competent practice.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die praktyk van multi-kulturele maatskaplike werk vereis dat die maatskaplike werker oor spesifieke kennis en praktykvaardighede moet beskik ten einde 'n bevoegde diens aan die kultureel-diverse kliëntsisteem te lewer. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Weermag (SANW) beskik tans oor geen definitiewe riglyne rakende multi-kulturele maatskaplikewerk-dienslewering nie. Gevolglik is maatskaplike werkers nie toegerus om 'n behoefte-gebaseerde, multi-kulturele diens aan die kultureel-diverse kliëntsisteme te lewer nie. Die doel van hierdie studie is om teoretiese en praktiese riglyne vir multi-kulturele maatskaplike werk in die SANW daar te stel. Daar is gepoog om die maatskaplikewerk-diensleweringsisteem bedag te maak op die variasies van kultuur wat by kliënte tydens maatskaplikewerk-dienslewering teenwoordig is. Die doelwitte van die studie is soos volg: eerstens, om die huidige profiel van die verbruikers van maatskaplikewerk-dienste in die SANW weer te gee; tweedens, om te fokus op die aard en funksie van militêre maatskaplike werk in die SANW, en die nut van multi-kulturele maatskaplike werk binne die militêre omgewing te ondersoek; derdens, om vas te stel of die huidige maatskaplikewerk-programme binne die SANW wel aan die behoeftes van 'n kultureel-diverse kliëntsisteem voldoen; vierdens, om die mate waarin die maatskaplike werker aandag skenk aan die kulturele agtergronde van kliëntsisteme te ondersoek; en laastens om vas te stel watter kennis en vaardighede maatskaplike werkers benodig ten einde 'n multi-kulturele maatskaplikewerk-diens binne die weermag opset daar te stel. Die studie het 'n doelbewuste steekproef van 557 kliënte ingesluit om die behoefte aan multi-kulturele maatskaplikewerk-dienste vas te stel. Hulle was verteenwoordigend van 'n verskeidenheid van etniese en kulturele agtergronde, geslag asook godsdienstige affiliasies. Die resultate is beide kwalitatief en kwantitatief ontleed. Gestruktureerde onderhoude is gevoer met 16 sleutel figure wat deel vorm van maatskaplikewerk-bestuur ten einde vas te stel hoe huidige maatskaplikewerk-programme ontwerp en bestuur word ten einde aan die vereistes van multi-kulturele maatskaplike werk te voldoen. Hierdie resultate is ook kwalitatief en kwantitatief ontleed. Voorts is groepsonderhoude gevoer met 'n ewekansige geselekteerde steekproef van 45 maatskaplikewerk-offisiere [produksie werkers] om hulle kennis, en menings van en houdings teenoor multi-kulturele maatskaplike werk vas te stel. Daar is verder bepaal in hoe 'n mate hulle wel sensitief is vir kliënte se kulturele agtergronde tydens dienslewering. Hierdie resultate is ook kwalitatief en kwantitatief ontleed. Na aanleiding van die empiriese ondersoek is bepaalde gevolgtrekkiogs gemaak. Die kliëntsisteem het aangedui dat dit belangrik is vir maatskaplike werkers om bewus te wees van die kulturele, etniese en godsdienstige agtergronde van die kliënte. Maatskaplikewerk-bestuurders moet vaardig wees in die bestuur van 'n multi-kulturele maatskaplike werk personeel sisteem. Die proses wat tydens strategiese beplanning gebruik word, en voorafgegaan word deur 'n omgewingsontleding, sal wel 'n effek hê op dienslewering binne 'n multi-kulturele maatskaplike werk. Maatskaplikewerk-progamme is wel aangepas om aan die behoeftes van 'n kultureel-diverse kliëntsisteem te voldoen. Die navorsing het aangedui dat die Direktoraat Maatskaplikewerk-dienste se besigheidsplan meer op ontwikkelingsaspekte soos MIV/VIGS moet fokus. Die meerderheid maatskaplikewerk-bestuurders beskou hul dienslewering as kultureel aanvaarbaar. Ten spyte van sekere wanopvattings, verstaan maatskaplikewerk-praktisyns wel die betekenis van multi-kultureel bevoegde dienslewering. Onduidelikheid bestaan egter of hulle eie kulturele/etniese/taal agtergrond wel dienslewering kan beïnvloed. Met betrekking tot kommunikasie is aangedui dat maatskaplikewerk-intervensie meer effektief is indien dit in 'n persoon se moedertaal plaasvind. Alhoewel die meeste maatskaplikewerk-benaderings wel deur die praktisyns benut word, word hul teoretiese kennis en die toepassing daarvan, bevraagteken. In die lig van veral hiervan is die respondente in die war of die maatskaplikewerk-programme wel aan die behoeftes van die multi-kulturele kliënt sisteem voldoen. Aanbevelings na aanleiding van die bevindinge sluit in dat die besigheidsplan van die Direktoraat Maatskaplikewerk-dienste meer moet fokus op ontwikkelingsaspekte en die noodsaaklikheid moet aandui dat 'n verskeidenheid kennis- en vaardigheidsbasisse nodig is van toepaslike modelle en benaderings in die praktyk. Die maatskaplikewerk-diensleweringsisteem benodig meer teoretiese kennis en vaardighede in die bestuur en implementering van In multi-kulturele bevoegde maatskaplikewerk-diens, asook die vaardigheid om maatskaplikewerk-programme in kultureel aanvaarbare programme om te skakel. Hulle moet verder ook oor die vaardigheid beskik om probleme binne hul eie kulturele/etniese agtergrond effektief te hanteer, alvorens enige maatskaplikewerk-intervensie met In kultureel-diverse kliëntsisteem kan plaasvind. Maatskaplike werkers moet ook bemagtig wees met betrekking tot die rol, funksie en implementering van maatskaplike ontwikkelingsstrategieë binne die konteks van daaglikse dienslewering en dus gehelp word om binne die multi-kulturele maatskaplikewerk-omgewing te werk. Verder moet personeel in elke maatskaplikewerk-kantoor en/of -afdeling kommunikasie stuikelblokke identifiseer wat dienslewering negatief kan beïnvloed. Opleidingsprogramme moet ontwikkel word vir die voorbereiding en voordurende onderrig van die maatskaplikewerk-diensleweringsisteem rakende kulturele bevoegdheid. Voorts moet navorsing onderneem word oor die verligting van spanning by maatskaplike werkers teenoor In kultureel-diverse kliëntsisteem; die effektiwiteit van maatskaplikewerk-programme om kulturele bevoegdheid te bereik; en die effek van maatskaplikewerk-bestuur op In kutureelbevoegde-praktyk.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/53136
This item appears in the following collections: