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Die effek van onderwystransformasie op die motivering en beroepsbelewing van onderwysers in die Wes-Kaapse Onderwysdepartement

Galant, Fernholdt Henry Michael (2002-03)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The passing of the South African Schools Act in 1996 marked the beginning of the formal process of transformation in education in South Africa. The application of a new national education policy based on the principle of equity gave rise to a process of rationalization and re-deployment - a process guided by financial constraints. Many educators and principals took voluntary severance packages, resulting in the abolition of thousands of teaching posts. Hundreds of newly appointed principals were left in 1997 with the daunting task of running their schools efficiently and effectively with a reduced staff. In addition to the much less favourable educator-learner ratios the process of transformation is characterised by inter alia the abolition of corporal punishment, the institution of a new qualifications framework, the introduction of Curriculum 2005 and an inclusive education policy. The whole of this process implies a drastic and pervasive change in thinking and conduct, leaving many educators in a state of uncertainty. Transformation and paradigm shifts brought about changed and changing values, convictions, interests, needs and new role players. All these changes together with new and greater demands on educators, and employment uncertainty, raise the issue of their effect on the motivation and occupational experience of educators. Thus the aim of the present research was to examme the effect of the process of transformation on the motivation and occupational experience of educators. Educator motivation is dealt with in the literature study in terms of specific motivational and personality theories. It also focuses on the nature of transformation and change in education in South Africa, especially in the Western Cape. A mainly quantitative approach has been adopted in the present research. It was designed as an exploratory and descriptive study. The target population consisted of educators in the service of the Western Cape Education Department. The accessible population was confined to a selection from two of the nine areas in the Western Cape, namely Athlone and Worcester. For the purpose ot proportional representation of educators a stratified sampling of educators from: primary and secondary schools, from larger and smaller schools and from former education departments was used. Of the grand total of6186 educators 20% (1258) were selected. A questionnaire survey was done to examine the effect of a wide range of applicable aspects of education transformation on the motivation and occupational experience of educators. More than one-third of the respondents indicated that the process of transformation in education was negatively influencing their motivation and occupational experience. Educators in non-promotion posts reported a more negative influence than educators in promotion posts. Respondents from the former Department of Education and Training reflected a more positive perception in respect of the effect of transformation on their motivation and occupational experience than did respondents from the two other ex-departments. In both cases the most negative influences were reported by educators from the former Cape Education Department. Regarding educators' expenence of contentment approximately 30% of respondents indicated that they were not happy in their profession. The reasons for educators' desire to leave their posts revolved largely around the management of change. The vast majority of educators were also very unhappy at the prospect of having to contend with learners with special educational needs in their ordinary classes. It would appear that educators experience frustration and feelings of uncertainty as a result of inadequate preparation and training for the drastic change of approach to their task. Consequently serious attention will have to be devoted to the training of principals and circuit managers in the management of change. It was found that educators were very happy with various aspects of democratisation in education. The new structure of governing bodies (on which learners and educators may also serve), the application of the principle of gender equity, and multicultural education are but a few examples. The majority of respondents were satisfied with policy matters like that on admission of learners and school attendance by all races - an indication that most educators were in favour of multi-cultural education. Transformation bears important implications for education management, in-service and pre-service training. Since many educators do not enjoy financial and job security, their need for security is not satisfied. As a result their self-actualisation can be jeopardised. Their motivation and occupational experience is further hampered by a lack of a sense of physical safety and the presence of an unpleasant physical work environment. Because these basic and social needs are not met, self-actualisation cannot be realised. The majority of educators felt that at the time of the study (April 2000) they had less control over their own responsibilities than five years earlier. This finding holds serious implications for principals as managers and for education authorities. Management structures and systems should be designed in such a way as to pose ambitious, though attainable targets and challenges to enable educators to develop and assume responsibilities. One of the key reasons why educators experienced their profession as unpleasant and wanted to quit their profession is the state of discipline in schools. Although the vast majority of respondents are satisfied with the code of conduct for learners most educators were unhappy with the abolition of corporal punishment. The negative tendencies regarding educators' occupational experience were illustrated further by the disparity between their current perceptions (April 2000) and those of five years before. In the estimation of the vast majority of educators their job was no longer pleasant or meaningful. Transformation in education had a negative impact on the motivation and occupational experiences of a large percentage of educators. Education authorities will have to reflect carefully on those aspects of policy that make educators unhappy and lower their morale. Factors that demotivate educators or have no motivational value, will have to be eliminated or changed. However, change and innovation will always happen in education. Perspectives emanating from this research can be utilised for a better undersstanding and implementation of change and innovation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Met die aanvaarding van die Suid-Afrikaanse Skolewet van 1996 het die proses van transformasie van die onderwys in Suid-Afrika formele beslag gekry. Die toepassing van 'n nuwe nasionale onderwysbeleid en die beginsel van gelykberegtiging, met fiskale beperkinge as faktor, het onder meer 'n proses van rasionalisering en herontplooiing meegebring. Nadat baie onderwysers en prinsipale vrywillige skeidingspakkette geneem het, is talle poste afgeskaf Honderde nuut-aangestelde prinsipale is teen 1997 die taak gelaat om met fn verskraaide personeel hul skole doeltreffend en effektiefte bestuur. Benewens groter onderwyser-Ieerderratios word die transformasieproses onder meer gekenmerk deur faktore soos die afskaffing van lyfstraf, die instelling van 'n nuwe kwalifikasieraamwerk, die instelling van Kurrikulum 2005 en 'n inklusiewe onderwysbenadering. Hierdie proses impliseer omvattende en drastiese transformasie van anders dink en doen, wat vir baie onderwysers met groot onsekerheid gepaard gaan. Met die proses van transformasie en gepaardgaande paradigmaverskuiwings kom veranderde en veranderende waardes, oortuigings, belange en behoeftes asook nuwe rolspelers, na vore. Vanweë bogenoemde veranderinge, nuwe en hoër eise wat dit aan die onderwyser stel, en beroepsonsekerheid wat baie onderwysers beleef, ontstaan die vraag watter effek dit op onderwysers se motivering en beroepsbelewing het. Die doel met die studie was derhalwe om die effek van die transformasieproses op die onderwyser se motivering en beroepsbelewing te ondersoek. In die literatuurstudie word onderwysermotivering aan die hand van bepaalde relevante motiverings- en persoonlikheidsteorieë behandel. Die aard van onderwystransformasie en -verandering in Suid-Afrika, maar meer spesifiek in die Wes-Kaap, word ook onder die loep geneem. In hierdie studie is oorwegend 'n kwantitatiewe benadering gevolg. Die ondersoek is ontwerp om verkennend sowel as beskrywend van aard te wees. Die teikenpopulasie was onderwysers III diens van die Wes-Kaapse Onderwysdepartement. Die bereikbare populasie is beperk tot die seleksie van twee van die nege onderwysareas in die Wes-Kaap, naamlik die Athlone- en Worcester-areas. 'n Gestratifiseerde steekproef is gebruik ter wille van proporsionele verteenwoordiging van onderwysers van die twee areas, primêre en sekondêre skole, groter en kleiner skole en voormalige onderwysdepartemente. Twintig persent van die totale bereikbare populasie, naamlik 1258 van die moontlike 6186 onderwysers, is geselekteer. 'n Vraelysondersoek IS onderneem om die effek van 'n wye reeks relevante aspekte van onderwystransformasie op onderwysers se motivering en beroepsbelewing te ondersoek. Meer as 'n derde van die repondente het aangedui dat hul motivering en hul belewing van die onderwysberoep negatief beïnvloed is deur die proses van onderwystransformasie. Onderwysers wat nie-bevorderingsposte beklee is skynbaar meer negatief beïnvloed deur die transformasieproses as die senior onderwysers. Die respondente van die voormalige Departement van Onderwys en Opleiding het meer positiewe persepsies ten opsigte van die effek van transformasie op hul motivering en beroepsbelewing gerapporteer as die respondente van die ander twee departemente. In beide gevalle het die voormalige KOD-Iede die negatiefste invloed gerapporteer. Wat onderwysers se gelukbelewing betref het sowat 30% van die respondente aangedui het dat hulle nie gelukkig is in die onderwys nie. Die redes waarom onderwysers hul beroep wil verlaat, sentreer in 'n groot mate om die bestuur van verandering. Die oorgrote meerderheid onderwysers is ook baie ontevrede oor die feit dat hulle nou leerders met spesiale onderwysbehoeftes in hul gewone klasse moet onderrig. Dit blyk dat onvoldoende voorbereiding en opleiding vir hierdie ingrypende veranderinge groot frustrasie en onsekerheid by baie onderwysers meebring. Ernstige aandag behoort dus gegee te word aan die opleiding van prinsipale en kringbestuurders om verandering te bestuur. Die bevindinge toon verder aan dat onderwysers baie tevrede is met verskeie aspekte van die demokratisering van die onderwys. Die nuwe samestelling van die beheerliggaam waarin ook leerders en opvoeders nou kan dien, die toepassing van geslagsgelykheid en multikulturele onderwys is maar enkele voorbeelde. Wanneer ander spesifieke beleidsaspekte, soos toelatingsbeleid en bywoning van skole deur alle rasse ter sprake kom, is die meerderheid van die respondente hiermee tevrede. Dit is 'n aanduiding dat die meerderheid onderwysers ten gunste van multikulturele onderwys is. Transformasie hou dus belangrike implikasies in vir onderwysleierskap, indiensopleiding en voordiensopleiding. Omdat baie onderwysers me finansiële en beroepsekuriteit beleef me, word hul sekuriteitbehoeftes nie bevredig nie. As gevolg daarvan kan selfaktualisering bemoeilik word. Die afwesigheid van fisieke veiligheidsbelewing en die aanwesigheid van onaangename fisiese werksomstandighede in die skool bring ook mee dat hul motivering en beroepsbelewing negatief beïnvloed word. Aangesien hierdie basiese en sosiale behoeftes nie bevredig word nie, kan selfaktualisering nie plaasvind nie. Een van die kardinale redes waarom onderwysers hul beroep as onaangenaam beleef en die onderwys wil verlaat, is die kwessie van dissipline in skole. Alhoewel die oorgrote meerderheid van die respondente tevrede is met die gedragskode vir leerders op die dissiplinering van leerders, voel die meerderheid ontevrede oor die afskaffing van lyfstraf Die genoemde negatiewe tendense ten opsigte van die onderwysers se beroeps- en gelukbelewing word verder geïllustreer deur die verskille tussen hul belewinge ten tyde van die ondersoek (in April 2000) in vergelyking met vyf jaar tevore. Vir die oorgrote meerderheid van die respondente is die onderwys nie meer aangenaam en sinvol nie. Die meerderheid van die onderwysers het gevoel dat hulle ten tyde van die ondersoek (in April 2000) minder beheer oor hul eie verantwoordelikhede gehad het as vyf jaar tevore. Hierdie bevinding hou ook ernstige implikasies in vir prinsipale as bestuurders van skole en vir die owerhede. Bestuurstrukture en -stelsels behoort op so 'n wyse ontwerp te word dat hulle hoë dog bereikbare teikens en uitdagings daarstel wat onderwysers in staat sal stelom te ontwikkel en verantwoordelikheid te aanvaar. Onderwystransformasie het 'n groot persentasie van die onderwysers se motivering en beroepsbelewing negatief beïnvloed. Die onderwysowerhede sal dringend moet besin oor daardie beleidsaspekte wat die onderwysers ongelukkig maak en hul moreel laat daal. Faktore wat onderwysers demotiveer of geen motiveringswaarde het nie, sal geëlimineer of gewysig moet word. Verandering en vernuwing sal egter altyd in die onderwys pl~asvind. Die bestuur van hierdie verandering is van groot belang. Die insigte wat uit hierdie navorsing bekom word, kan vorentoe gebruik word om ook vernuwing beter te vérstaan en te implementeer.

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