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Etiology and STI/HIV coinfections among patients with urethral and vaginal discharge syndromes in South Africa

dc.contributor.authorMhlongo S.
dc.contributor.authorMagooa P.
dc.contributor.authorMuller E.E.
dc.contributor.authorNel N.
dc.contributor.authorRadebe F.
dc.contributor.authorWasserman E.
dc.contributor.authorLewis D.A.
dc.date.accessioned2011-05-15T16:17:55Z
dc.date.available2011-05-15T16:17:55Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.identifier.citationSexually Transmitted Diseases
dc.identifier.citation37
dc.identifier.citation9
dc.identifier.issn01485717
dc.identifier.other10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181d877b7
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/14427
dc.description.abstractBackground: This study was undertaken to establish the etiology of the male urethral discharge (MUDS) and vaginal discharge (VDS) syndromes, to determine the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfections, and to examine associations between STIs and HIV serostatus among STI patients in South Africa. Methods: A total of 507 MUDS and 300 VDS patients were recruited in Cape Town (CPT) and Johannesburg (JHB). A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay detected Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis were detected by microscopy. Sera were screened for syphilis, HSV-2, and HIV antibodies. Results: Etiological diagnoses were made for 92% of MUDS patients and 85% of VDS patients. Gonorrhoea accounted for 85% (CPT) and 71% (JHB) of MUDS presentations. Chlamydia was the second most frequently detected MUDS pathogen (CPT, 13%; JHB, 24%). Among VDS patients, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause (CPT, 46%; JHB, 36%) and trichomoniasis the most frequently detected STI pathogen (CPT, 19%; JHB, 34%). Few patients (4%) had serological evidence of syphilis. The HSV-2 and HIV seroprevalence were higher in Johannesburg compared to Cape Town and among women compared to men. HIV infection was statistically significantly associated with HSV-2 seropositivity at both sites and with the presence of N. gonorrhoeae and absence of C. trachomatis in Cape Town MUDS patients. Conclusions: Gonorrhoea and bacterial vaginosis were confirmed as the most frequent causes of MUDS and VDS. The high HIV seroprevalence in STI patients emphasizes the need to address HIV testing among this population. Copyright © 2010 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.
dc.subjectbacterium antibody
dc.subjectciprofloxacin
dc.subjectclotrimazole
dc.subjectdoxycycline
dc.subjectHerpes simplex virus 2 antibody
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus antibody
dc.subjectmetronidazole
dc.subjectsyphilis antibody
dc.subjectunclassified drug
dc.subjectvirus antibody
dc.subjectantibody screening
dc.subjectarticle
dc.subjectbacterium detection
dc.subjectcandidiasis
dc.subjectChlamydia
dc.subjectChlamydia trachomatis
dc.subjectchlamydiasis
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectdisease association
dc.subjectfemale
dc.subjectgonorrhea
dc.subjectherpes simplex
dc.subjecthuman
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus infected patient
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus infection
dc.subjectmajor clinical study
dc.subjectmale
dc.subjectmale urethral discharge
dc.subjectmicroscopy
dc.subjectmixed infection
dc.subjectmultiplex polymerase chain reaction
dc.subjectMycoplasma genitalium
dc.subjectNeisseria gonorrhoeae
dc.subjectserology
dc.subjectseroprevalence
dc.subjectsexually transmitted disease
dc.subjectsingle drug dose
dc.subjectSouth Africa
dc.subjectsyphilis
dc.subjectTrichomonas vaginalis
dc.subjecttrichomoniasis
dc.subjecturethra disease
dc.subjectvagina discharge
dc.subjectvaginal discharge syndrome
dc.subjectvaginitis
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectGenital Diseases, Female
dc.subjectGenital Diseases, Male
dc.subjectHIV Infections
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectMale
dc.subjectPrevalence
dc.subjectSexually Transmitted Diseases
dc.subjectSouth Africa
dc.subjectSyndrome
dc.subjectUrethral Diseases
dc.subjectVaginal Discharge
dc.titleEtiology and STI/HIV coinfections among patients with urethral and vaginal discharge syndromes in South Africa
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionArticle


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