Designing a mobility as a service principled service offering for the minibus taxi industry that improves the user experience—using Stellenbosch as a case study
Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2022.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The minibus taxi industry (MBTI) is the backbone of the South African public transport system, accounting for 63% of all public transport trips and transporting a total of 2.5 million daily commuters. The MBTI operates as a paratransit service because it provides unscheduled public transport services, accessible at taxi ranks or on the side of the road. The problem with minibus taxis is that they are unreliable and prioritise profit maximisation above the user experience of the commuter. Mobility-as-Service (MaaS), on the other hand, is a user-centric service that offers commuters access to multiple transport modes, accessible on a single digital platform. MaaS was started in Finland and Switzerland and still operates, predominantly in Europe. The purpose of this research is to investigate how MaaS principles, if effectively embedded into the MBTI operating model, could improve the user experience of the MBTI commuter. MBTI practitioners and commuters were interviewed, and taxi rank visual evaluations performed to investigate the research problem. The results of the analysed data demonstrated that the best way to integrate MaaS principles into the MBTI was through a mobile app (named the Jika app)—requiring a transformation in the MBTI operating model. The Target Operating Model (TOM) framework was used to formulate a prototype of a MaaS principled MBTI service offering. The six building blocks of the TOM—processes, organisation, management, locations, information and suppliers—were used to demonstrate how the MaaS principles would be integrated into the current MBTI operating model via the Jika app. The research identified three main aspects that stand to gain the most improvement through the integration of MaaS principles. The first aspect was the information gap found within the MBTI where both commuters and drivers do not have access to the information necessary for conducive decision-making. This aspect would benefit most from the integration of the MaaS principles: demand-orientation and technology in the MBTI. The second aspect was the need for customer feedback systems in the MBTI which would benefit most from the integration of the MaaS principles: personalisation and demand-orientation. The third aspect was the diversity of the MBTI customer base, varying in travel behaviours, travel needs and access to resources. This aspect would benefit most from the integration of the MaaS principles: customisation, personalisation, demand-orientated service provision, single platform offering, technology usage and payment options in the MBTI. The integration of MaaS principles in these aspects of the MBTI operational model would contribute to improving the MBTI commuter user experience. It was concluded that a MaaS principled service offering for the MBTI would improve the user experience of the commuter.
ISISHWANKATHELO SESIXHOSA: Iqumrhu loshishino lweeteksi (QLL) luyintsika yenkqubo yezothutho loluntu lwaseMzantsi Afrika, lubalelwa kuma-63% azo zonke iihambi zezothutho zikawonke-wonke kwaye zithutha abakhweli bemihla ngemihla abazigidi ezi-2.5. i-QLL idlala indima ye-paratransit ngenxa yokuba isebenza njengeaithuthi sikawonke-wonke esithutha abantu ngendlela engacwangciswanga, sifumaneka kwiirenkin zeteeksi okanye ecaleni kwendlela. Ingxaki ngeeteksi kukuba azithembekanga kwaye zibeka phambili ukunyusa inzuzo ngaphezu kwamava abakhweli. i-Mobility-as-Service (i-MaaS), ngakolunye uhlangothi, yinkonzo ebeka phambili amava omkhweli enika abakhweli igunya lokusebenzisa iindidi ngeendidi zezithuthi; ezifumaneka kwiqonga elinye elidijithali. i-MaaS yaaqalwa kwilizwe laseFinland nakwelaseSwitzerland kwaye ubukhulu-becala isasetyenziswa eYurophu. Injongo yoluphando kukuphanda indlela yokufaka imigaqo ye-MaaS, ngokufanelekileyo, kwinkqubo ye-QLL ukuze iphucule amava omkhweli we-QLL. Kwenziwe udliwano-ndlebe kunye nabasebenzi nabakhweli be-QLL, kwenziwa uvandlakanyo lweliso kwiirenki zeeteksi ngeenjongo zokuhlalutya ingxaki yoluphando. Iziphumo zedatha ehlalutyiweyo zibonise ukuba eyona Ndlela yokudibanisa imigaqo ye-MaaS kwi-QLL kukusebenzisa i-app (ethiywe ngegama eliyi-Jika app)—oluzawdinga utshintsho kwinkqubo ye-QLL. Kusetyenziswe i-Target Operating Model (i-TOM) ukwenza umfuziselo wenkonzo ye- QLL exutywe nemigaqo ye-MaaS. Iibhloko ezintandathu zokwakha i-TOM—iinkqubo, umbutho, ulawulo, iindawo, ulwazi kunye nababoneleli—ziye zasetyenziswa ukubonakalisa indlela imigaqo ye-MaaS ingaxutywa kwinkqubo ye-QLL ngeJika app. Uphando luveze imiba emithathu emele ukuzuza olona phuculo ngokuxutywa kwemigaqo ye- MaaS. Umba wokuqala sisikhewu solwazi phakathi kwabaqhubi be-QLL kunye nabakhweli, apho abaqhubi nabakhweli bengenalo ufikelelo kulwazi oluyimfuneko ekwenzeni izigqibo ezineyona nzuzo. Lo mba ungazuza lukhulu ekuxutyweni kwemigaqo ye-MaaS elandelayo: inkozo elungelelanise nemfuno kunye nomgaqo wobuchwepheshe. Umba wesibini ibiyimfuno yeenkqubo yabakhweli yokunika ingxelo kwi-QLL enokuthi ixhamle kakhulu ekuxutyweni kwalemigaqo ye-MaaS elandelayo: ukwakha ngokwezidingo kunye nenkozo elungelelanise nemfuno. Inkalo yesithathu yayintlukwano yesiseko sabakhweli be-QLL, ukuhluka kwiindlela zokuhamba, iimfuo zokuhamba kunye nesakhono sokufikelela kwimithombo. Lomba ungazuza lukhulu ekuxutyweni kwemigaqo ye-MaaS elandelayo: ukuqwetywa ngokwezidingo, ukwakha ngokwezidingo, ukulungelelanise nemfuno, inkonzo efumaneka kwiqonga elinye, usetyenziso lobuchwepheshe kunye neeendidi zobhatala kwiQLL. Ukuxutywa kwemigaqo ye-MaaS kulemiba yenkqubo ye-QLL kuya kuba negalelo ekuphuculeni amava omkhweli we-QLL. Kuye kwagqitywa ekubeni inkonzo ye-QLL exutywe nemigaqo ye-MaaS iyakuphucula amava omkhweli we-QLL.