Difference in running gait kinematics between highly trained and recreational trail runners before and after a fatigue stimulus

Robertson, Emily (2021-12)

Thesis (M Sport Sc)--Stellenbosch University, 2021.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The influence of fatigue on running gait kinematics is not well documented in the trail running population, specifically the differences between highly trained and recreational trail runners. Previous research on running gait kinematics has largely focused on road runners, and the relationships between kinematics, performance, injury and fatigue has been established in this population. There is limited research on trail running gait kinematics available and the role thereof in trail running performance and training, in comparison to road running. Seven highly trained runners (mean age 35 ± 2.2; body mass (kg) 69.5 ± 4.3; height (cm) 177.5 ± 5.8; VO2max 71.30 ± 6.18 ) and 10 recreational trail runners (mean age 24.8 ± 2.4; body mass (kg) 78.0 ± 5.1; height (cm) 183.5 ± 6.8; VO2max 66.20 ± 5.12) participated in this study. Runners completed an indoor maximal treadmill running protocol on a BERTEC treadmill to volitional exhaustion. The treadmill running protocol included a VO2max test that began at 10.0km/h, with a continuous increase of +1.0km/h per minute and a continuous inclination increase by 0.5% per minute starting at 0.0%. Select running gait kinematics observed included: stride length (SL), stride frequency (SF), ankle angle at contact (ADF), knee flexion (KF), hip flexion (HF) and forward trunk inclination (FTI) were measured by inertial measurement units (IMU’s) (100Hz). Running gait kinematics from the last ten seconds of the corresponding minute, at the start (0%), middle (50%) and end (100%) of each individual’s VO2max test, were analyzed. During their laboratory visit, each runner began with a VO2max test. This test involved a warm up of easy jogging at 10km/h, with a continuous increase of +1.0km/h per minute and continuous inclination increase by 0.5% per minute starting at 0.0%. The runners were verbally encouraged during the test to run for the longest time possible until volitional exhaustion was reached. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between groups during submaximal running (10km/h). When analyzing the changes in kinematics at the start of the VO2max test, there were no significant differences found between the roups in a non-fatigued state during submaximal running (10km/h). Results from the end of the VO2max test indicated that there were no significant differences between the groups for SC, ADF, HF and FTI. However, significant differences were observed for SL (p = 0.01) and KF (p = 0.02) at the end of the VO2max test (p = 0.02). Results from the repeated measures ANCOVA indicate that running gait kinematics for both groups were similar. Although no statistical significance was shown, medium to large effect sizes illustrate that there were a trend of kinematic change over time and between groups, that could show significant differences between recreational and highly trained runners with a larger group of participants. Significance HT runners maintained a stable running gait for longer, whereas recreational runners can improve in areas such as SL and KF. These results can help to further understanding of the relationship between running gait kinematics, training status and fatigue.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Daar is ‘n gebrek aan goeie navorsing oor die invloed van moegheid op hardloopgang kinematika, veral tussen die hardlopers wat teen hoe intensiteit oefen en die wat slegs oefen vir ontspanning/ rekreasie. Meeste van die navorsing oor hardloopgang kinematika is gebaseer op padatlete en die verwantskap tussen kinematika, prestasie, beserings en uitputting vir die padhardloop populasie. Daar is dus beperkte navorsing beskikbaar op berghardloop hardloopgang kinematika en die rol daarvan op berghardloopprestasie en oefen in vergelyking met padhardloop. Sewe goed gekondisioneerde hardlopers (gemiddelde ouderdom 35 ±2.2; liggaamsgewig (kg) 69.5 ± 4.3; lengte (cm) 177.5 ± 5.8; VO2max 71.30 ± 6.18) en 10 ontspanning/ sosiale hardlopers (gemiddelde ouderdom 24.8 ± 2.4; liggaamsgewig (kg) 78.0 ± 5.1; lengte (cm) 183.5 ± 6.18; VO2 max 66.20 ± 5.12) het deelgeneem aan die studie. Die hardlopers het ‘n binnenshuise maksimale trapmeul harloop protokol gedoen, op a BERTEC trapmeul om vrywillige self-bepaalde uitputting te bepaal. Die trapmeul se harloop protokol het ‘n VO2maks toets ingesluit wat by 10.00 km/h begin het, met ‘n gelydelike toename van +1.0km/h per minuutasook ’n geleidelike toename in die helling van 0.5% per minuut vanaf 0.0%. Hardloopgang kinematika wat tydens die studie geobserveer en met inersie meet-toerusting (100Hz) gemeet is, is sluit in: tree lengte (SL), tree-frekwensie (SF), enkel hoek met kontak (ADF), knie- (KF) en heupfleksie, (HF), vorentoe leun van die romp (FTI). Hardloopgang kinematika van die laaste tien (10) sekondes van ‘n minuut van elke individu se VO2maks toets is geanaliseer – die begin (0%), middel (50%) en einde (100%). Daar is deurlopend ‘n beduidende statistiese verskil in al die hardloopgang kinematika gevind vir beide die groepe hardlopers (gekondisioneerde harlopers en die wat harloop vir ontspanning) se VO2maks toets veranderlikes (SL: 2.57 ± 0.35 vs 2.73 ± 0.32m; SC: 169.18 ± 8.77 vs 187.65 ± 11.14 steps per minute; ADF: -4.75 ± 7.66 vs –8.02 ± 5.69°; KF: 14.59 ± 5.63 vs 25.98 ± 6.16°; HF: 19.76 ± 5.25 vs 34.14 ± 6.08°; FTI: 20.0 ± 5.53 vs 21.60 ± 5.99°). Met die aanvang van die VO2maks toets was daar geen beduidende statistiese verskil tussen die geobserveerde hardloopgang kinematika van die twee harloop groepe nie. Aan die einde van die VO2maks toets, was daar steeds nie ‘n beduidende statistiese verskil vir die groepe SC, ADF, HF en FTL nie. Aan die einde van die VO2maks toets is beduidende verskille wel geobserveer vir SL (2.89 ± 0.22 (HT) vs 2.50 ± 0.31m (REC) p < 0.01) en KF (23.20 ± 5.90 (HT) vs 29.95 ± 4.21 (REC) p < 0.05). Alhoewel nie statisties beduidend nie, was daar matige tot baie groot verskille geobserveer by beide groepe wanneer hul uitgeput was (SC: ηp2 = 0.06, SL: ηp2 = 0.11, KF: ηp2 = 0.20, FTI: ηp2 = 0.31). Betekenisvolheid: Gekondisioneerde hardlopers kon ‘n stabiele hardloophang kinematika vir langer handhaaf, sosiale hardlopers kan verbeter in areas van SL en KF. Hierdie resultate sal in die toekoms help om die verwantskap tussen hardloopgang kinematika, staat van oefening en uitputting in hardlopers beter te verstaan.

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