Investigating process drama as methodology to address sensitive curriculum content in secondary schools in Lesotho

Malibo, Rethabile Khantse (2021-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2021.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) was introduced in Lesotho in 2005 by the Lesotho government through the Ministry of Education and Training. The introduction of the subject was a response to the prevailing socio-cultural climate in Lesotho of early sexual debut for both boys and girls, high and increasing rates of HIV/AIDS, early and unintended pregnancies and marriages, illegal abortion, as well as drug and alcohol abuse amongst the adolescent population. The aim of this study is to investigate a process drama inspired pedagogy that teachers can use in teaching sensitive curriculum content, specifically comprehensive sexuality education. By extension, the study also intends to promote and encourage the employment of arts, specifically process drama, in formal education spaces. The study employs a qualitative research design consisting of two parts: a literature review, based primarily on secondary data collection, and primary data collection in the form of a participatory practical exploration within an action research approach. The literature study looks at the context of sexuality education and contestations surrounding it, the principles and characteristic of the subject and the implementation of the subject in Lesotho. It also includes the theoretical and conceptual framework of the study. Theories discussed focus on two entities: the teacher and the teaching model as the primary subjects, and the learners as a secondary entity. These theories include, constructivism (both cognitive and social), the Conceptual Change Model (CCM), positioning theory, the Health Belief Model, and psychosocial theory. Lastly the literature review addresses process drama as a form of applied drama. The primary data collection for this study was carried out in Lesotho and the population consisted of secondary school teachers from all ten districts, who teach comprehensive sexuality education. A total of fifty-two teachers were initially involved in the study, but as the study progressed the numbers decreased. Questionnaires, interviews, and process drama workshops were employed to produce primary data. The findings indicate that teachers do not understand CSE and have developed a negative attitude towards it. Teaching the subject negatively impacts their social standing not only in the school, but also in the community. They are of the view that teaching the subject might corrupt the sexual innocence of the learners or create learners eager to experiment with their newfound knowledge. Consequently, teachers design CSE content using their own biographies and employ a dictatorial methodology in class. The findings further suggest that teachers are appreciative of the role process drama can play in teaching sensitive curriculum content, but as it was a new pedagogy, they struggled to acquaint themselves with some of the conventions involved in the process. Despite observed challenges, the potential for process drama as an effective teaching method for sensitive curriculum content was confirmed. This study therefore highlights the significant role that the arts – and specifically process drama – can play within formal education spaces.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Omvattende seksualiteitsopvoeding is in 2005 in Lesotho bekendgestel deur die regering se Ministerie van Onderwys en Opleiding. Die bekendstelling van die vak was in teenreaksie op die heersende sosio-kulturele klimaat in Lesotho van vroeë seksuele debuut vir beide seuns en dogters, hoë en toenemende HIV/VIGS infeksiesyfers, vroeë en onbeplande swangerskappe en huwelike, onwettige aborsies, sowel as dwelm- en alkoholmisbruik onder adolessente. Die doel van hierdie studie is om ʼn prosesdrama geïnspireerde pedagogie vir onderwysers te ondersoek, wat gebruik kan word om sensitiewe kurrikuluminhoud, spesifiek omvattende seksualiteitsopvoeding, aan te bied. Die studie poog ook om die aanwending van die kunste, spesifiek prosesdrama, in formele onderrigruimtes aan te moedig en te promoveer. Die studie gebruik ʼn kwalitatiewe navorsingsontwerp wat uit twee dele bestaan: ʼn bronnestudie wat hoofsaaklik op sekondêre data-insameling steun, en primêre data-insameling in die vorm van ʼn deelnemende praktiese ondersoek binne ʼn aksie-navorsingsbenadering. Die bronnestudie ondersoek die konteks van seksualiteitsopvoeding en die argumente daarrondom, die beginsels en eienskappe van die vak, sowel as die implementering van die vak in Lesotho. Dit sluit ook die teoretiese en konseptuele raamwerk van die studie in. Teorieë wat bespreek word fokus op twee entiteite: die onderwyser en die onderrigmodel as primêre entiteite, en die leerders as ʼn sekondêre entiteit. Hierdie teorieë sluit die volgende in: konstruktivisme (beide kognitief en sosiaal), die Konseptuele Veranderingsmodel, posisioneringsteorie, die Gesondheidsoortuigingsmodel, en psigososiale teorie. Laastens word prosesdrama as ʼn vorm van toegepaste drama deur die bronnestudie aangespreek. Die primêre data-insameling vir hierdie studie het in Lesotho plaasgevind en die steekproefpopulasie het bestaan uit hoërskoolonderwysers uit al tien distrikte wat omvattende seksualiteitsopvoeding aanbied. ʼn Totaal van twee-en-vyftig onderwysers was aanvanklik betrokke in die studie, maar getalle het afgeneem soos die studie gevorder het. Vraelyste, onderhoude, en prosesdrama werkswinkels is ingespan om primêre data te produseer. Die bevindinge dui aan dat onderwysers nie omvattende seksualiteitsopvoeding verstaan nie en dat hulle ʼn negatiewe houding daarteenoor ontwikkel. Hulle sosiale stand word negatief beïnvloed as hulle die vak aanbied, nie net in die skool nie, maar ook in die gemeenskap. Hulle gaan van die standpunt uit dat die vak die onskuld van leerders kan skade aandoen, of dat leerders gretig sal wees om te eksperimenteer met hul nuutgevonde kennis. Gevolglik bied onderwysers omvattende seksualiteitsopvoeding se inhoud aan deur gebruik te maak van hul eie biografieë en ʼn diktatoriale onderrigstyl. Die bevindings suggereer verder dat alhoewel onderwysers waardering het vir die rol wat prosesdrama kan speel om sensitiewe kurrikuluminhoud aan te bied, is dit ʼn nuwe pedagogie en het hulle gesukkel om vertroud te raak met sommige van die konvensies in die proses. Ten spyte van die waargenome uitdagings, is die potensiaal van prosesdrama as effektiewe onderrigmetode vir sensitiewe kurrikuluminhoud bevestig. Hierdie studie belig dus die beduidende rol wat die kunste – en spesifiek prosesdrama –in formele onderrigruimtes kan speel.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/110055
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