The allocation of resources for the realisation of women's rights : an analysis of article 26(2) of the Maputo Protocol

Doubell, Lize-Mari (2020-12)

Thesis (LLM)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Maputo Protocol is the leading women’s rights treaty in Africa. However, the treaty can only be effectively implemented if resources, aimed at its realisation, are generated and spent through government policies and budgets. Article 26(2) of the Maputo Protocol provides that state parties are obligated to adopt all necessary measures, which include budgetary and other resources, for the full and effective implementation of the rights therein recognised. After examining how state parties to the Maputo Protocol and the supervisory bodies currently mobilise resources to realise women’s rights, it was established that article 26(2) is severely underutilised and/or incorrectly applied by state parties. Some of the main reasons for this is a misallocation of resources and that state parties do not fully understand their obligations under the Maputo Protocol. Thus, women are left disempowered and unprotected. To address these concerns, this thesis establishes the nature of state obligationsunder article 26(2) through developing an interpretative framework for resource allocation to realise women’s rights. Anti-essentialist feminist legal theory and gender responsive budgeting are used as the theoretical framework guiding the research. As Africa is such a diverse continent, the analysis of anti-essentialist feminist legal theory ensures that the complex needs of women with multiple identities and lived realities are considered. The substantive realisation of human rights cannot be separated from resource allocation; thus, gender responsive budgeting provides a lens through which holistic budgeting for women’s rights can be understood. This thesis also considers how other international supervisory bodies, such as the CEDAW Committee and the CESCR, have interpreted resource allocation for the realisation of human rights. These supervisory bodies have, through their various mandates, provided a rigorous interpretation of how state parties should generate and spend resources to ensure human rights are kept at the forefront. This thesis finds that state parties to the Maputo Protocol, and the supervisory bodies, still have a long way to go to ensure that article 26(2) is fully interpreted and implemented. However, there are immediate steps which all parties can take, including commencing long-term strategies, which will result in more holistic gender responsive budgets and policies. The African Court, the African Commission, the Special Rapporteur, civil society and state parties all need to work together to ensure that women’s rights are fully protected.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Maputo-protokol is die voorste vroueregteverdrag in Afrika. Die verdrag kan egter slegs effektief geïmplementeer word indien hulpbronne, wat op die verwesenliking daarvan gerig is, deur regeringsbeleid en -begrotings gegenereer en bestee word. Artikel 26(2) van die Maputo-protokol bepaal dat staatspartye verplig is om alle nodige maatreëls, wat begrotings- en ander hulpbronne insluit, vir die volle en effektiewe implementering van die regte wat in die protokol erken word, te tref. Nadat daar ondersoek ingestel is na hoe staatspartye tot die Maputo-protokol asook toesighoudende liggame tans hulpbronne mobiliseer om vroueregte te verwesenlik, is vasgestel dat artikel 26(2) ernstig onderbenut word en/of verkeerd deur staatspartye toegepas word. Van die hoofredes hiervoor is die foutiewelike toewysing van hulpbronne asook die feit dat staatspartye nie hul verpligtinge ingevolge die Maputoprotokol ten volle verstaan nie. Vroue word dus ontmagtig en onbeskermd gelaat. Om hierdie bekommernisse aan te spreek, vestig hierdie tesis die aard van staatsverpligting in terme van artikel 26(2) deur ‘n interpretatiewe raamwerk vir die toewysing van hulpbronne om vroueregte te verwesenlik, te ontwikkel. Antiessensialistiese feministiese regsteorie asook geslagsresponsiewe begrotings word as teoretiese raamwerk vir hierdie navorsing gebruik. Aangesien Afrika so 'n uiteenlopende vasteland is, verseker die ontleding van die anti-essensialistiese feministiese regsteorie dat die komplekse behoeftes van vroue met veelvuldige identiteite en lewende realiteite in ag geneem word. Die substantiewe verwesenliking van menseregte kan egter nie van die toewysing van hulpbronne geskei word nie, dus bied geslagsresponsiewe begrotings 'n lens waardeur die holistiese begroting vir vroueregte verstaan kan word. Hierdie tesis oorweeg ook hoe ander internasionale toesighoudende liggame, soos die CEDAW-komitee en die CESCR, die toekenning van hulpbronne vir die verwesenliking van menseregte geïnterpreteer het. Hierdie toesighoudende liggame het, deur middel van hul verskillende mandate, ‘n noukeurige interpretasie van hoe staatspartye bronne moet genereer en bestee om te verseker dat menseregte op die voorgrond bly, gelewer. Hierdie tesis bevind dat staatspartye tot die Maputo-protokol asook die toesighoudende liggame nog 'n lang pad het om te stap om te verseker dat artikel 26(2) volledig geïnterpreteer en geïmplementeer word. Daar is egter onmiddellike stappe wat alle partye kan neem, insluitend deur te begin met langtermyn strategieë, wat meer holistiese geslagsresponsiewe begrotings en beleide tot gevolg sal hê. Die Afrika-hof, die Afrika-kommissie, die Spesiale Verslaggewer, die burgerlike samelewing asook staatspartye moet almal saamwerk om te verseker dat vroueregte ten volle beskerm word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/109191
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