The effect of a rhythmic movement intervention on selected bio-motor skills of Western Province rugby academy players

Solomons, Jocelyn (2020-03)

Thesis (MScSportSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : The inclusion of other non-traditional approaches to training has become more popular within rugby conditioning. Rhythmic movement, also referred to as “dance”, involves the execution of different motor skills, the integration and sequencing of actions between limbs, timing and spatial precision. It requires performing movement tasks to auditory rhythmic patterns and as a multifaceted activity, it depends on a large number of elements with direct and indirect effects on the physiology and physical attributes of a player. In terms of rugby conditioning the common belief dictates that fitness or conditioning elements should be developed through focused, isolated training blocks. The technical, tactical and physical conditioning for rugby has primarily consisted of traditional, rugby-based approaches to training as indicated by the majority of current research. However, in order for rugby coaches and specialist coaches to gain a competitive edge over opposing teams, they need to find new innovative ways to adapt their training methods and programmes in order to accommodate the changes to the profile of the game. The primary aim was to investigate the effect of a rhythmic movement intervention on selected bio-motor skills of rugby players in the Western Province Rugby Union Academy. The first objective of the study was to investigate the effect of a 16-week rhythmic movement intervention on flexibility, dynamic balance, agility, power and local muscular endurance of these rugby players. The second objective was to compare selected bio-motor skills of backs and forwards after participating in a 16-week rhythmic movement intervention. The thesis followed a research article format. Article one addressed both objectives of the study. A positive treatment effect on the bio-motor skills was found because was a statistically significant increase in performance after treatment was implemented, based on the treatment-order and treatment time-interaction (p=≤0.05). The major finding of this study was that when treatment was implemented a statistically significant difference was observed in the bio-motor skills. Among these bio-motor skills were agility, power, local muscular endurance and some dynamic balance directions. The results among the entire population showed that power1 & 2 (seated medicine ball throw and vertical jump) and local muscular endurance2, 3 & 4 (2-minute crunch, pull-up to failure and single leg squat to failure), as well some dynamic balance directions (anterior, anteromedial, posteromedial, posterior, posterolateral direction and medial) improved significantly. Furthermore, among forwards and backs, agility1 (Illinois without ball) and power1 (seated medicine ball throw) showed statistically significant improvements (p=≤0.05). In summary, among the entire sample of participants, power1, 2 and local muscular endurance2,3,4 ,as well some dynamic balance directions (anterior, anteromedial, posteromedial, posterior, posterolateral direction and medial), showed statistically significant improvements (p=≤0.05) from pre- to post-treatment. Amongst forwards and backs, agility1 and power1 showed statistically significant improvements (p=≤0.05). Rhythmic movements can be adapted in various ways in terms of music and movements to accommodate not only the rugby players, but also rugby-orientated movements. Additionally, a rhythmic movement intervention can be used right throughout the season with adaptations to intensity according to the demands of the training phase. For this reason, multiple bio-motor skills can be trained simultaneously, which is advantageous to a demanding rugby-training schedule. In other words, rhythmic movements can be used as a tool to warm-up, as a conditioning method to improve specific bio-motor skills or, when required, as a recovery method for players. It is recommended that, in order to observe benefits from a rhythmic movement intervention, the rhythmic movement should include and cater for the positional demands of rugby players. Furthermore, the rhythmic movement intervention should be implemented throughout the entire rugby season in order to be as effective as possible. Literature has shown physical, psychophysical and ergogenic benefits of music on performance. Therefore, it is recommended that rhythmic movements be used as an alternative training method during off-season (or detraining phases), and as a recovery method. A rhythmic movement intervention, such as this will assist coaches and trainers, who are frequently searching for new novel ways to improve performance, to implement an alternative training strategy to their strength and conditioning programmes.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die insluiting van ander nie-tradisionele benaderings in afrigting het in rugby kondisionering meer populêr geword. Ritmiese beweging, ook verwys na as “dans”, behels die uitvoering van verskillende motoriese vaardighede, die integrasie en volgorde van aksies tussen die ledemate, tydsberekening en ruimtelike presisie. Dit verg die uitvoering van bewegingstake op ouditiewe ritmiese patrone en as ʼn veelsydige aktiwiteit wat afhanklik is van ʼn groot aantal elemente met direkte en indirekte effekte op die fisiologiese en fisieke eienskappe van ʼn speler. In terme van rugby kondisionering dikteer algemene oortuiging dat hierdie fiksheids- of kondisioneringselemente deur gefokusde, geïsoleerde inoefeningsblokke ontwikkel moet word. Uit die huidige literatuur blyk dit duidelik dat die tegniese, taktiese en fisieke kondisionering vir rugby primêr uit tradisionele, rugby-gebaseerde benaderings tot inoefening bestaan. Hoewel, om die mededingende voordeel te behou moet rugby afrigters en spesialis afrigters gereeld nuwe innoverende maniere vind om hulle inoefeningsmetodes en programme aan te pas om sodoende die veranderinge in die profiel van die spel te akkommodeer. Die primêre doel was om die effek van ʼn ritmiese beweging intervensie op geselekteerde bio-motoriese vaardighede van rugby spelers in die Westelike Provinsie Rugby Unie Akademie na te vors. Die eerste doelwit van die studie was om die effek van ʼn 16-week ritmiese beweging intervensie op lenigheid, dinamiese balans, ratsheid, krag en lokale spieruithouvermoë van hierdie rugby spelers te ondersoek. Die tweede doelwit was om die geselekteerde bio-motoriese vaardighede van agter- en voorspelers na afloop van deelname aan ʼn 16-week ritmiese beweging intervensie te vergelyk. Die tesis is volgens ’n artikel formaat gestruktureer. Artikel een het beide doelwitte aangespreek. ’n Positiewe behandelingseffek op die bio-motoriese vaardighede is bekom aangesien ʼn statisties betekenisvolle behandelingseffek na afloop van die behandeling verkry is, gebaseer op die behandelingsvolgorde en behandeling tyd-interaksie (p=≤0.05). Die grootste bevinding van hierdie studie was dat met die implementering van die behandeling ʼn statisties betekenisvolle verskil in die spesifieke bio-motoriese waargeneem is. Onder hierdie bio-motoriese vaardighede was ratsheid, krag, lokale spieruithouvermoë en sommige dinamiese balans rigtings. Die resultate onder die hele populasie het getoon dat krag1 & 2 (sittende medisyne bal gooi en vertikale sprong) en lokale spieruithouvermoë2, 3 & 4 (2-minuut opsitte, optrek tot faal en eenbeen hurk tot faal), asook sommige dinamiese balans rigtings (anterior, anteromediaal, posteromediaal, posterior, posterolateraal rigting en mediaal). Voorts, tussen die voor- en agterspelers het ratsheid1 (illinois sonder bal) en krag1 (sittende medisyne bal gooi) statisties beduidende verbeterings getoon (p=≤0.05). Om op te som, onder die hele steekproef het krag1, 2 en lokale spieruithouvermoë2,3,4, asook sommige dinamiese balans rigtings (anterior, anteromediaal, posteromediaal, posterior, posterolateraal rigting en mediaal), statisties betekenisvolle verbeterings (p=≤0.05) van pre- tot post-behandeling getoon. Tussen voor- en agterspelers het ratsheid1 en krag1 statisties betekenisvolle verbeterings (p=≤0.05) getoon. Ritmiese beweging kan op verskillende maniere aangepas word in terme van musiek en beweging om nie net rugby spelers te akkommodeer nie, maar ook rugby georiënteerde bewegings. Addisioneel, ’n ritmiese beweging intervensie kan reg deur die seisoen met aanpassing aan intensiteit na aanleiding van die eise van die inoefeningsfase gebruik word. Om hierdie rede kan veelvuldige bio-motoriese vaardighede gelyktydig ingeoefen word wat voordelig is vir ʼn veeleisende rugby inoefening sessie. Met ander woorde, ritmiese beweging kan gebruik word as ’n hulpmiddel vir opwarming, as ʼn kondisionerings metode om spesifieke bio-motoriese vaardighede te verbeter of, wanneer nodig, as ʼn herstel metode vir spelers. Daar word aanbeveel dat om die voordele van ʼn ritmiese beweging intervensie waar te neem, moet die ritmiese bewegings posisionele eise van rugby spelers ingesluit en daarvoor voorsiening gemaak word. Verder moet die ritmiese beweging intervensie dwarsdeur die hele rugby seisoen toegepas word om sodoende so effektief as moontlik te wees. Die literatuur toon fisieke, psigo-fisieke en ergogeniese voordele van musiek tydens deelname. Daarom word aanbeveel dat ritmiese beweging as ’n alternatiewe inoefeningsmetode tydens die af seisoen gebruik word (of tydens die tydperk van verlies aan opleidingseffek), en as ʼn herstel metode. ’n Ritmiese beweging intervensie soos hierdie sal afrigters en opleiers, wat gereeld na nuwe maniere soek om prestasie te verbeter, help om alternatiewe inoefening strategieë vir hulle krag en kondisioneringsprogramme te bekom.

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