ITEM VIEW

Behavioural lifestyle factors, physical health-related fitness and cardiometabolic disease risk in women from a low socio-economic urban community in Stellenbosch (Western Cape)

dc.contributor.advisorTerblanche, Elmarieen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorDickie, Kasha Elizabethen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Sport Science.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-21T13:05:11Z
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-28T12:21:20Z
dc.date.available2020-02-21T13:05:11Z
dc.date.available2020-04-28T12:21:20Z
dc.date.issued2020-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108136
dc.descriptionThesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), represent an ever-rising threat to the effective management of national health in South Africa. This especially among low versus high socio-economic urban communities as evidenced almost a decade ago. The results of which are likely to lead to an even higher demand for chronic public health care provision, and thus put immediate economic strain on the imminent South African (SA) National Health Insurance fund soon to be launched in 2026. However, one could argue that the evidence needed to reformulate the existing SA health policies, especially those directed at NCD-risk management and inclusive of modifiable behavioural/lifestyle factors, is either: i) not implemented and no action is taken; or ii) implemented, yet ineffective; or iii) limited and thus unable to detect a clinically significant effect to date. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to characterise behavioural/lifestyle factors namely physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour, as well as physical health-related fitness and cardiometabolic disease risk profiles for CVD and T2DM in a group of urban women from an under-resourced Western Cape community. In addition, to determine whether physical inactivity, sedentarism and poor health-related fitness levels are important predictors of obesity and other cardiometabolic disease risk outcomes associated with CVD and T2DM. Fifty-one (N=51) apparently healthy women (42 ± 13 yrs) underwent the following measurements: physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST), anthropometric, cardiovascular and physical-health related fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF] and muscular strength). Results from the study showed that less than a third of the women met the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Health Recommendations for moderate to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) using accelerometry. Although overweight, women who accumulated ≥ 30-min of MVPA per day presented with more favourable body composition and regional body fat measures, compared to those who did not. In addition, women who were sufficiently active presented with reduced cardiometabolic disease risk. Although the associations between PA (intensities and volume) and CRF were not statistically significant, all were positive and showed clinically important associations. Independent of steps/day, higher CRF was associated with women who were younger and with reduced measures of total and central adiposity (p < 0.001). Whereas higher physical health-related fitness as opposed to ST and MVPA, was independently associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk but potentially mediated by adiposity. In an attempt to combat cardiometabolic disease risk for CVD and T2DM among low socio-economic community urban-dwelling women, public health interventions should target domains in which time is already spent physically active. Such as walking briskly for travel- and/or occupational-related activities, while also aiming to increase public awareness of the health-enhancing benefits associated with meeting MVPA recommendations. Furthermore, intervention strategies also aimed at reducing cardiometabolic risk should target physical health-related fitness while also reducing ST especially among women who are already sarcopenic. Although the success of which will only be met once we understand the community’s specific barriers to PA and healthy dietary habits.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Nie-oordraagbare siektes (NOS), soos kardiovaskulêre siektes (KVS) en tipe 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), verteenwoordig ’ n steeds stygende bedreiging vir die effektiewe bestuur van nasionale gesondheid in Suid-Afrika (SA). Dit is veral so in die geval van lae versus hoë sosio-ekonomiese stedelike gemeenskappe, soos wat reeds ongeveer ‘n dekade gelede bevind is. Hierdie resultate gaan heel waarskynlik aanleiding gee tot ’n selfs hoër aanvraag na die voorsiening van kroniese openbare gesondheidsorg wat onmiddellik ekonomiese druk gaan plaas op die nuut voorgestelde Suid-Afrikaanse Nasionale Gesondheidsversekering (NGV) fonds wat in 2026 in werking tree. Daar kan egter geargumenteer word dat die nodige bewyse om die bestaande Suid-Afrikaanse gesondheidsbeleide te herformuleer, veral dié gerig op NOS-risikobestuur en die inklusiwiteit van aanpasbare gedrag-/leefstylfaktore is óf: i) nie geïmplimenteer en geen aksie vind plaas nie; óf ii) geïmplimenteer, maar oneffektief; óf iii) beperk en daarom nie in staat om ’n klinies betekenisvolle effek te bespeur nie. Gevolglik was die primêre doel van die studie om die gedrag-/leefstylfaktore, naamlik fisieke aktiwiteit (FA) en sedentêre gedrag, asook fisieke gesondheidsverwante fiksheid en die risiko vir kardiometaboliese siekte profiele vir KVS en T2DM in ’n groep stedelike vrouens vanuit ’n voorheen benadeelde Wes-Kaaplandse gemeenskap, te bepaal. Daarmee saam het die studie ten doel gehad om te bepaal of fisieke onaktiwiteit, sedentêre gedrag en swak gesondheidsverwante fiksheidsvlakke belangrike voorspellers van vetsug en ander kardiometaboliese risiko’s wat met KVS en T2DM geassosieer kan word. Een-en-vyftig (N=51), klaarblyklik gesonde vrouens (42 ± 13 jr) is aan die volgende metings onderwerp: fisieke aktiwiteit (FA) en sedentêre tyd (ST); antropometrie; kardiovaskulêre en fisieke gesondheidsverwante fiksheid (kardiorespiratoriese fiksheid [KRF] en spierkrag). Die resultate, soos bepaal met draagbare versnellingsmeters, het aangedui dat minder as ’n derde van die vroue aan die Wêreld Gesondheidsorganisasie (WGO) se Globale Gesondheidsaanbevelings vir matige tot hoë intensiteit FA (MHFA) voldoen het. Alhoewel oorgewig, het die vroue wat ≥ 30-min MHFA per dag geakkumuleer het, ’n meer gunstige liggaamsamestelling en liggamsvetmates getoon in vergelyking met vroue wat nie aan die vereiste MHFA per dag voldoen het nie. Daarmee saam het vroue wat voldoende aktief was ’n verminderde risiko vir kardiometaboliese siektes getoon. Alhoewel die assosiasies tussen FA (intensiteit en volume) en KRF nie statisties betekenisvol was nie, was almal positief en het klinies belangrike assosiasies getoon. Uitsluitend die treë per dag, is hoër KRF in jonger vroue met verminderde mates van totale en sentrale adipositeit, geassosieer (p < 0.001). Alhoewel hoër fisieke gesondheidsverwante fiksheid, in teenstelling met ST en MHFA, onafhanklik met verminderde kardiometaboliese risiko geassosieer het, kon dit heel moontlik deur adipositeit bemiddel gewees het. In ’n poging om die risiko vir kardiometaboliese siekte vir KVS en T2DM onder vrouens in ʼn lae sosio-ekonomiese stedelike gemeenskap te beveg, moet openbare gesondheidsintervensies domeine teiken waarin tyd reeds spandeer word om fisiek aktief te wees - byvoorbeeld, aktiwiteite soos vinnig stap om by ’n bestemming uit te kom en/of beroepsverwante aktiwiteite. Die doel behoort ook te wees om openbare bewustheid van die gesondheidsvoordele wat gepaard gaan met die bereiking van die MHFA aanbevelings te verhoog. Verder moet intervensiestrategieë gerig op die vermindering van kardiometaboliese risiko’s veral fisieke gesondheidsverwante fiksheid teiken en terselfdertyd ST, veral onder vroue wie alreeds sarkopenies is, verminder. Sukses sal egter net bereik word wanneer gemeenskappe se spesifieke hindernisse tot deelname aan FA en gesonde dieetgewoontes verstaan word.af_ZA
dc.format.extentxxxiii, 294 leaves : illustrations
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectCommunity development, Urban -- South Africa -- Stellenboschen_ZA
dc.subjectHeart -- Diseases -- Risk factorsen_ZA
dc.subjectPoor women -- Health and hygiene -- South Africa -- Western Cape -- Stellenboschen_ZA
dc.subjectPhysical fitness -- Health aspectsen_ZA
dc.subjectHealth behavioren_ZA
dc.subjectUCTDen_ZA
dc.subjectPublic health -- Economic aspects -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.titleBehavioural lifestyle factors, physical health-related fitness and cardiometabolic disease risk in women from a low socio-economic urban community in Stellenbosch (Western Cape)en_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.description.versionDoctoralen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

ITEM VIEW