Motivating Potential Score (MPS) as a job resource within the job demands-resources model in the South African mining industry

Lombard, Francois De Villiers (2020-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Relevant literature related to the mining industry consistently highlights the challenging job demands and conditions faced by these employees and the effect it has on individual well-being and motivation. In addition, noteworthy changes have taken place within the mining sector with employees faced with greater workloads, a struggling economy that has led to retrenchments, and greater government interference (Iverson & Maguire, 1999). This combined with the automation of mining jobs and political unrest within the industry has led to South African mining communities experiencing lower levels of job satisfaction, motivation and higher levels of reported job insecurity and employee unrest (O’Conner, 2017). Although alarming, Bakker and Demerouti (2014) stated that some individuals, regardless of experiencing high job demands, do not develop burnout but rather seem to handle the high demanding and stressful work environments better. Remaining aligned with these findings, the present study aimed at investigating factors that influences the well-being of mining employees. Furthermore, due to the limited research aimed at motivating potential score as a construct and its effects as a job resource on employee engagement and burnout within the mining industry, the following research-initiating question was asked: - What causes variance in Engagement and Burnout amongst mining employees within South Africa? The job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Bakker and Demerouti, 2004) was utilised as a framework in order to investigate the research-initiating question for mining employees within South Africa. The primary objective of this research study was to develop and test a motivating potential score structural model, which could explain the antecedents of variance in work engagement and burnout. The antecedents investigated in the study compromised of motivating potential score (as a job resource), strength use behaviour (as a personal resource), deficit correction behaviour (as a personal resource) and work overload (as a job demand) present within the mining environment. An ex post facto correlation design was utilised in order to test the formulated hypotheses. Quantitative data was collected from 257 employees by means of non-probability convenience sampling. A hard copy, self-administrating questionnaire was distributed to mining employees, situated in the North-West. This approach was undertaken after organisational approval was received as well as ethical clearance from Stellenbosch University, given that the mining employees had agreed to participate in the study. The measuring instruments consisted of 1) the Utrecht Engagement Scale (UWES-17); 2) the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS); 3) the revised Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS); 4) Strength Use Behaviour and Deficit correction questionnaire (SUDCO); and 5) Job Demands-Resources Scale (JDRS). The data gathered was analysed by using item analysis as well as structural equation modelling, whereby partial least squares path analysis was conducted to determine the significance of the hypothesised relationship. From the 11 hypotheses that was formulated for this research study, five were found to be significant. More specifically, hypotheses 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were all found to be statistically significant and as a result, supported the JD-R theory (Bakker & Demerouti, 2014), which advocates that job and resources are the most important predictors of employee engagement as well as job demands being the most important predictors of burnout. Hypotheses 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 were found to be not significant, these hypotheses however were linked to the moderating effects. Furthermore, the investigation and interpretation of the final scores indicated that mining employees stationed in the North-West were highly engaged, experienced high levels of burnout, had access to mining jobs that had a variety of job characteristics, had high self-start behaviour and seemed to experience high levels of job demands. The findings of this research study shed light on the importance of organisational interventions that fosters job and personal resources in the pursuit of optimising employee engagement and burnout. Furthermore, the importance of motivating potential score as a job resource was highlighted for the mining industry and effect it has on employee engagement as well as aid to cope with their existing job demands, which ultimately leads to lower levels of experienced burnout.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Relevante literatuur oor die myn industrie beklemtoon the uitdagende werkseise en omstandighede wat werknemers in die gesig staar en watse effek dit op individuele welstand en motivering het. Boonop, opmerklike veranderings het plaasgevind in die myn sektor wat veroorsaak het dat mynwerkers groter werkladings, ‘n sukkelende ekonomie wat lei tot afleggings en groter regering betrokkenheid in die gesig staar (Iverson & Maguire, 1999). Dit gekombineer met die outomatisasie van myn werke en politiese onrus binne die industrie het gelei tot Suid Afrikaanse myn gemeenskappe wat laer werktevredenheid, motivering en hoër vlakke van werksonsekerheid en werknemeronrus (O’Conner, 2017). Alhoewel skokkend het Bakker en Demerouti (2014) verklaar dat sekere individue, ongeag van hulle hoë werkslading, nie uitbranding ontwikkel nie, maar eeder die veeleisende en stressvolle werksomgewing beter hanteer. Deur bylenend the bly met hierdie bevindinge, mik die huidige studie om faktore te ondersoek wat the welstand van mynwerkers beïnvloed. Verder, aangesien beperkte navorsing wat gemik teenoor motivering potentiaal telling as n konstruk en die effek van hierdie konstruk as n werkhulpbron op werknemerbetrokkenheid en uitbranding binne die myn industrie bestaan, is die volgende navordingsinisiërende vraag gevra: - Wat veroorsaak variansie in werknemerbetrokkenheid en uitbranding tussen myn werkers van Suid Afrika? Die werkseise-hulpbronne-model (job demands-resources (JD-R) model) (Bakker and Demerouti, 2004) is as n raamwerk gebruik om hierdie navordingsinisiërende vraag in die myn industrie van Suid Afrika te beantwoord. Die primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om n strukturele model vir motivering potentiaal telling te ontwerp en te toets, wat die antesedente van variansie in werkbetrokkenheid en uitbranding te verklaar. Die antesante behels motivering potentiaal telling (as ‘n werkshulpbron), selfkrag gedrag (as ‘n persoonlike hulpbron), tekort regstellende gedrag (as ‘n persoonlike hulpbron) en werksoorlaaing (as ‘n werkseis) wat vertoonwoordig is binne die mynbedryf. ‘n Ex post facto korrelasionele ontwerp is gebruik om die geformuleerde hipoteses te toets. Kwantitatiewe data is deur middle van nie-waarskynlikheids-gerieflikheidsteekproefneming by 257 mynwerkers versamel. ‘n Selftoegediende vraelys op harde kopie was versprei by na mynwerkers in die Noord Wes. Hierdie benadering was onderneem, slegs na toestemming by die organisasie ontvang was, asook etiese goedkeuring van die Universiteit Stellenbosch, en gegegewe dat die mynwerkers ingestem het om aan die navorsing deel te neem. Die meetinstrumente het bestaan uit 1) the Utrecht Engagement Scale (UWES-17); 2) the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS); 3) the Revised Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS); 4) Strength Use Behaviour and Deficit correction questionnaire (SUDCO); and 5) Job Demands-Resources Scale (JDRS). Die data is met behulp van itemanalises en Strukturele Vergelykingsmodellering (SEM) geanaliseer, waar PLS pad-ontleding onderneem is om die betekenisvolheid van die gehipoteseerde verhoudings te bepaal. Van die 11 hipoteses wat in die studie geformuleer is, is vyf betekenisvol bevind. Meer spesifiek is hipoteses 1, 2, 3, 4 en 5 almal statisties betekenisvol bevind, wat beteken dat hierdie hipoteses JD-R-teorie ondersteun (Bakker & Demerouti, 2014). Hierdie teorie postuleer dat werk en persoonlike hulpbronne oor die algemeen die belangrikste voorspellers van werksbetrokkenheid is, terwyl werkseise oor die algemeen die belangrikste voorspellers is van beroepsgesondheidsprobleme is. Hipoteses 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 en 11 is nie betekenisvol bevind nie; hierdie hipoteses hou egter verband met die matigende effekte. Verder is daar gevind tydens die ondersoek en interpretasie van die finale resultate dat mynwerkers wat gestationeer is in die Noord Wes is hoogs betrokke by hul werk, het hoë vlakke van uitbranding ervaar, toegang het tot ‘n werk wat toegerus is met ‘n verskeidenheid werkskenmerke, hoë selfinisieering gedrag en hoë vlakke van werkseise te ervaar. Die bevindinge van die studie werp lig op die belangrikheid van organisatoriese ingrypings wat werks en persoonlike hulpbronne bevorder in die nastrewing van die optimering van werkbetrokkenheid en uitbranding. Verder, die belangrikheid van motivering potentiaal telling as ‘n werkshulpbron was benadruk vir die myn bedryf en die effek wat dit het op werknemerbetrokkenheid sodat hulle hul huidigle werkseise meer doeltreffend kan hanteer, wat dan kumulatief ‘n afname in werknemers se vlak van uitbranding sal veroorsaak.

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