Inklusiewe demokratiese burgerskaponderwys as 'n verdedigbare benadering om ondissipline en geweld in Suid-Afrikaanse skole te beperk

Asia, Henry Peter (2020-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : In the study on which this dissertation reports, I investigated violence and indiscipline in South African schools, especially socio-economic disadvantaged schools, prior to and after apartheid. Furthermore, I advocate a reconceptualised version of democratic citizen education after 1994, namely inclusive democratic citizen education (IDCO) to address indiscipline and violence in our schools. I am of the view that the efforts of the South African government, for instance the promotion of values and attitudes through the Manifesto on Values, Education and Democracy (DoE, 2001) as contained in the school curricula do not appear to be adequate. I complement these inadequate efforts to address violence and indiscipline in schools with my own experiences (narrative) as a teacher of historically disadvantaged schools over the past 37 years. I believe that the abolition of corporal punishment and other forms of penalties in South Africa challenged teachers’ authority and left them in a state of powerlessness. It seems that learners’ awareness of their individual rights led to an understatement of their responsibilities, and that this contributes to a sense of limitless freedom, which worsens the problem of violence and indiscipline. That is why I advocate IDCE – with the emphasis on socially moral and democratic values and a deliberating ubuntu approach to conflict – which could help to address indiscipline and violence in schools. To conceptualise my study, I investigated and reflected on various works on deliberative democracy, ubuntu democracy, education, discipline, violence and values in education. The views of various researchers and their thoughts on respect for persons and their cultural background, tolerance, compassion, social-moral responsibility, dialogue and democratic deliberation and ubuntu, will hopefully change the attitudes of teachers and learners regarding violence and indiscipline. In this study, I broadened the boundaries of the Philosophy of Education to include inclusive philosophy of education, which amalgamated the universal (Western) and the regional (Africa) philosophical traditions. Within the inclusive philosophy of education IPoE, I examined my revised IDCE and make findings and recommendations in this regard. In this study, I made use of interpretative and critical theory as paradigms. The first allowed me to interpret data sources, such as education policies, my own narrative and the phenomenon of indiscipline and violence in schools to clear up vaguenesses. The second paradigm allowed me to explore violence and indiscipline in schools as well as my position regarding violence and indiscipline, to identify problems and formulate emancipatory thoughts that would lead to a transformed and improved education practice. Education policies and other relevant government documents from 1994, my own narrative and opinions of philosophers of education and social theorists served as data sources, and these I have analysed and interpreted.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : In die studie waaroor die proefskrif verslag sal doen, het ek geweld en ondissipline in Suid-Afrikaanse skole, veral sosioëkonomies benadeelde skole, voor en ná apartheid ondersoek. Verder bepleit ek ʼn herkonseptualisering van demokratiese burgerskaponderwys ná 1994, naamlik inklusiewe demokratiese burgerskaponderwys (IDBO) om ondissipline en geweld in ons skole die hoof te bied. Ek voer aan dat die pogings van die Suid-Afrikaanse regering, onder meer die bevordering van waardes en gesindhede deur middel van die onderwysmanifes oor waardes, onderwys en demokrasie soos bevorder die skoolkurrikulums, nie genoegsaam blyk te wees nie. Ek vul hierdie ontoereikende pogings om geweld en ondissipline in skole die hoof te bied, uit my eie ervaring (narratief) as onderwyser van histories-agtergeblewe skole die afgelope 37 jaar aan. Ek is van mening dat die afskaffing van lyfstraf en ander vorme van strawwe in Suid-Afrika onderwysers se gesag uitgedaag het en hulle in ʼn posisie van magteloosheid gelaat het. Dit wil lyk asof leerders se bewuswording van hulle individuele regte tot ʼn onderbeklemtoning van hulle verantwoordelikhede gelei het, en dat dit bydra tot ʼn gevoel van onbeperkte vryheid, en dus die probleem van geweld en ondissipline vererger. Daarom bepleit ek IDBO − met die klem op maatskaplik-morele en demokratiese waardes en ʼn beraadslagende ubuntu-benadering tot konflik – wat daartoe kan bydra om ondissipline en geweld die hoof te bied. Om my studie te konseptualiseer, het ek van die invloedryke sienings oor beraadslagende demokrasie, ubuntu-demokrasie, en onderwys, dissipline en waardes in onderwys ondersoek en daaroor besin. Hierdie sienings van en gedagtes oor respek vir mense en hulle kulturele agtergrond, verdraagsaamheid, deernis, maatskaplik-morele verantwoordelikheid, dialogiese en demokratiese beraadslaging en ubuntu, sal hopelik onderwysers en leerders se gesindheid met betrekking tot geweld en ondissipline verander. In hierdie studie het ek die grense van die Filosofie van Opvoedkunde verbreed om inklusiewe filosofie van opvoeding (IFvO) in te sluit, wat die universele (Westerse) en partikuliere (Afrika) filosofiese tradisies in Suid-Afrika verenig. Met behulp van IFvO het ek my hersiene IDBO ondersoek, bevindings afgelei en aanbevelings gemaak. In die studie het ek gebruik gemaak van die interpretatiewe en kritiese ondersoek as paradigmas. Eersgenoemde het my in staat gestel om databronne soos onderwysbeleide, my eie narratief en die verskynsel van ondissipline en geweld in skole op so ʼn wyse te interpreteer dat ek dit wat vaag was, helder en duidelik kon maak. Die tweede paradigma het my in staat gestel om geweld en ondissipline in skole en my posisie in die skool te verken, probleme te identifiseer en emansipatoriese gedagtes te formuleer wat tot ʼn getransformeerde en verbeterde onderwyspraktyk kan lei. Onderwysbeleide en relevante regeringsdokumente vanaf 1994, my narratief en die menings van filosowe van onderwys en maatskaplike teoretici het as databronne vir analise en interpretasie gedien.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107781
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