The role of social workers in promoting entrepreneurship among the youth in Botswana

Jongman, Kgomotso (2020-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Social work has been said to be a profession of many faces, it is deeply entrenched in socio-economic and to some extent political influences because it deals with policy that guides social welfare. With so many faces and too much influence from outside, there are a couple of roles that social workers perform and this array of roles that social workers perform can end up leading them to forget the core mandate of social work which is social justice and end up feeding the cravings of neoliberalism especially from government and donor organisations. Botswana has been classified as upper middle-class economy with a reasonable GDP per capita but it is clear that despite the high economic success and stable political environment, the country is still experiencing the challenges experienced by poor countries. There is high poverty incidents, national unemployment, and high unemployment among the youth. The youth are the most important because they make up to 70% of the whole population which means they should be given priority in a developmental intervention. Unemployment among the youth in Botswana is at 40% which is more than the national unemployment statistics which is at 20%. This high unemployment has led government to come up with different interventions since 1945 up until now. The aim of this study was to explore the role of social workers in promoting youth entrepreneurship in Botswana. The research objectives included the following: to contextualize social work in Botswana; to analyse theories of positive youth development within a social development paradigm and consider international and local perspectives; to synthesize theories of entrepreneurship based on theories of positive youth development within the context of social work in Botswana; to investigate the role of social work in promoting youth development in allied programmes in Botswana; to make recommendations to the Botswana Ministry of Youth Empowerment, Sports and Culture Development and to the academic community (University of Botswana and others) and other youth worker stakeholders regarding the role of social work in promoting youth development in entrepreneurship. These objectives also represented the chapter layout of the study. This research was ontologically cemented in the interpretivist paradigm, focused on understanding the narratives, dialogues and meaning; it was a exploratory and descriptive study, within a purposive sample section of the ministry of youth empowerment, sports and culture development where 21 social workers were interviewed. The primary research instrument within the case study framework was the semi-structured interview schedule, which through a reliance on such theoretical propositions, logic models, and pattern matching. The resultant empirical analysis explored the narratives of social workers when reflection on their roles in promoting youth entrepreneurship in Botswana. The social workers felt the ministry is more in achieving more numbers of those who have been given programmes without considering, the quality of service, talent, passion, environment where the youth are based. They further reflected on the lack of empirical evidence in terms of their interventions and this has made their work to be difficult because they cannot apply their skills and expertise as social workers and they end up being relegated to only performing clerical work of giving out forms and collecting forms without purposeful interventions which is aimed at social change, empowerment and social justice.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Maatskaplike werk is ‘n professie met verskeie fasette, wat gesetel is in sosio-ekonomiese en politieke invloede, omdat maatskaplike werk te doen het met beleide wat maatskaplike welsyn rig. Met so baie fasette en eksterne invloede is daar verskeie rolle wat maatskaplike werkers moet vervul. Hierdie rolle kan daartoe lei dat maatskaplike werkers hulle kernmandaat vergeet om te strewe na maatskaplike geregtigheid, en dat neoliberale verwagtinge deur regerings en donateurs uiteindelik gedien word. Botswana word geklassifiseer as ‘n hoë middelklas ekonomie met ‘n gemiddelde GDP per kapita. Dit is egter duidelik dat ondanks die hoë ekonomiese sukses en stabiele politieke omgewing, beleef die land steeds uitdagings wat normaalweg deur arm lande beleef word. Die armoede indeks is hoog, en beduidende werkloosheid onder die jeug bestaan. Die jeug is betekenisvol, omdat tot 70% van die populasie uit jeugdiges bestaan, wat impliseer dat hulle as ‘n prioriteit in ontwikkelingsintervensies beskou moet word. Die werkloosheidsyfer van jeugdiges in Botswana is 40%, wat meer as die nasionale werkloosheidsyfer van 20% is. Hierdie hoë werkloosheid het daartoe gelei dat die regering verskillende intervensies sedert 1945 geïmplementeer het. Die doel van hierdie studie was om begrip te ontwikkel vir die rol van maatskaplike werkers in die bevordering van jeugentrepreneurskap in Botswana. Die navorsingsdoelstellings het die volgende ingesluit: om maatskaplike werk in Botswana te konseptualiseer; om teorieë van positiewe jeugontwikkeling binne ‘n ontwikkelingsgerigte paradigma te analiseer met betrekking tot internasionale en plaaslike perspektiewe; om teorieë van entrepreneurskap tot ‘n sintese te bring, gebaseer op teorieë van positiewe jeugontwikkeling binne die konteks van maatskaplike werk in Botswana; om die rol van maatskaplike werk in verwante programme in Botswana te ondersoek; en om aanbevelings te maak aan die ministerie van jeugontwikkeling, sport en kulturele ontwikkeling van Botswana, en die akademiese gemeenskap (die Universiteit van Botswana), en ander vennote in jeugontwikkeling, met betrekking die rol van maatskaplike werk in die bevordering van jeugontwikkeling en entrepreneurskap. Hierdie doelstellings word ook in die uitleg van die hoofstukke in die studie gereflekteer. Die navorsing was ontologies gefundeer in ‘n interpreterende paradigma, en fokus op die begrip van narratiewe, dialoog en bekenis. Die studie was eksplorerend en beskrywend van aard met ʼn doelbewuste steekproef vanuit die ministerie van jeug-, sport- en kultuurontwikkeling. Onderhoude is met een en twintig maatskaplike werkers gevoer. Die navorsinginstrument binne ‘n gevallestudieraamwerk was ‘n semi-gestruktureerde onderhoudskedule, gebaseer op teoretiese proposisies, logiese modelle en patrone. Die empiriese analise van die studie eksploreer die narratiewe van die maatskaplike werkers en hulle reflektering op die bevordering van jeugentrepreneurskap in Botswana. Die maatskaplike werkers beleef dat die ministerie skenk meer aandag aan die bereiking van sekere teikens sonder om programme deeglik te oorweeg, en om die kwaliteit van dienste, talente, passie en die omgewing in ag te neem. Hulle reflekteer verder op die gebrek aan empiriese gegewens in terme van hulle intervensies, wat hulle werk bemoeilik, omdat hulle nie hulle vaardighede en kundigheid as maatskaplike werkers kan toepas nie. Hulle word bloot gereguleer om administratiewe werk te verrig deur vorms uit te gee en in te neem, sonder doelgerigte intervensies wat gerig is op maatskaplike verandering, bemagtiging en geregtigheid.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/107759
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