One Health approach in the prevention and control of mycobacterial infections in Tanzania : lessons learnt and future perspectives

Katale, Bugwesa Z. ; Mbugi, Erasto V. ; Keyyu, Julius D. ; Fyumagwa, Robert D. ; Rweyemamu, Mark M. ; Van Helden, Paul D. ; Dockrell, Hazel M. ; Matee, Mecky I. (2019-11-27)

CITATION: Katale, B. Z., et al. 2018. One Health approach in the prevention and control of mycobacterial infections in Tanzania : lessons learnt and future perspectives. One Health Outlook, 1:2, doi:10.1186/s42522-019-0002-1.

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Background: One Health (OH) is an integrated approach, formed inclusive of using multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for humans, animals, and the environment. The increasing proximity between humans, livestock, and wildlife, and its role in the transmission dynamics of mycobacterial infections, necessitates an OH approach in the surveillance of zoonotic diseases. The challenge remains as humans, livestock, and wildlife share resources and interact at various interfaces. Therefore, this review explores the potential of the OH approach to understand the impact of mycobacterial infections in Tanzania in terms of lessons learnt and future perspectives. Materials and methods: Available literature on OH and mycobacterial infections in Tanzania was searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Articles on mycobacterial infections in Tanzania, published between 1997 to 2017, were retrieved to explore the information on OH and mycobacterial infections. Main body: The studies conducted in Tanzania had have reported a wide diversity of mycobacterial species in humans and animals, which necessitates an OH approach in surveillance of diseases for better control of infectious agents and to safeguard the health of humans and animals. The close proximity between humans and animals increases the chances of inter-specific transmission of infectious pathogens, including drug-resistant mycobacteria. In an era where HIV co-infection is also the case, opportunistic infection by environmental non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), commonly known as mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) may further exacerbate the impact of drug resistance. NTM from various sources have greatest potential for diverse strains among which are resistant strains due to continued evolutional changes. Conclusion: A collaborative interdisciplinary approach among professionals could help in solving the threats posed by mycobacterial infections to public health, particularly by the spread of drug-resistant strains.

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