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Functional connectivity alterations between networks and associations with infant immune health within networks in HIV infected children on early treatment : a study at 7 years

dc.contributor.authorToich, Jadrana T. F.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Paul A.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHolmes, Martha J.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorGohel, Surilen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorCotton, Mark F.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorDobbels, Elsen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLaughton, Barbaraen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLittle, Francescaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorVan Der Kouwe, Andre J. W.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorBiswal, Bharaten_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMeintjes, Ernesta M.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-23T08:14:48Z
dc.date.available2019-09-23T08:14:48Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.citationToich, J. T. F., et al. 2018. Functional connectivity alterations between networks and associations with infant immune health within networks in HIV infected children on early treatment : a study at 7 years. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11:635, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00635
dc.identifier.issn1662-5161 (online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00635
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106514
dc.descriptionCITATION: Toich, J. T. F., et al. 2018. Functional connectivity alterations between networks and associations with infant immune health within networks in HIV infected children on early treatment : a study at 7 years. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11:635, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00635.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at https://www.frontiersin.org
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although HIV has been shown to impact brain connectivity in adults and youth, it is not yet known to what extent long-term early antiretroviral therapy (ART) may alter these effects, especially during rapid brain development in early childhood. Using both independent component analysis (ICA) and seed-based correlation analysis (SCA), we examine the effects of HIV infection in conjunction with early ART on resting state functional connectivity (FC) in 7 year old children. HIV infected (HIV+) children were from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial and all initiated ART before 18 months; uninfected children were recruited from an interlinking vaccine trial. To better understand the effects of current and early immune health on the developing brain, we also investigated among HIV+ children the association of FC at 7 years with CD4 count and CD4%, both in infancy (6–8 weeks) and at scan. Although we found no differences within any ICA-generated resting state networks (RSNs) between HIV+ and uninfected children (27 HIV+, 18 uninfected), whole brain connectivity to seeds located at RSN connectivity peaks revealed several loci of FC differences, predominantly from seeds in midline regions (posterior cingulate cortex, paracentral lobule, cuneus, and anterior cingulate). Reduced long-range connectivity and increased short-range connectivity suggest developmental delay. Within the HIV+ children, clinical measures at age 7 years were not associated with FC values in any of the RSNs; however, poor immune health during infancy was associated with localized FC increases in the somatosensory, salience and basal ganglia networks. Together these findings suggest that HIV may affect brain development from its earliest stages and persist into childhood, despite early ART.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00635/full
dc.format.extent15 pagesen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherFrontiers Mediaen_ZA
dc.subjectHIV infectionsen_ZA
dc.subjectNeurodevelopmental treatment for infantsen_ZA
dc.subjectAntiretroviral drugsen_ZA
dc.titleFunctional connectivity alterations between networks and associations with infant immune health within networks in HIV infected children on early treatment : a study at 7 yearsen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.description.versionPublisher's version
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyrighten_ZA


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