Automated surgical light positioning system using thermal-imaging and optical techniques

Burger, Jarryd Michiel (2019-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Surgical light systems (SLS) are used to ensure optimal light conditions during surgical procedures. At present, these light sources are adjusted manually by the surgeon or other operating room (OR) personnel. Manual adjustment of the SLS is problematic due to the necessity for a sterile environment. Surgeons must either adjust the SLS themselves, or communicate their requirements so that the OR assistants can position the lights to ensure optimal surgical conditions. Other complications with current SLS include mechanical problems, collisions, inaccessibility and illumination issues. It would be beneficial if the SLS could be automated to illuminate the wound without input from the surgeon. Therefore, the aim of this project was to test whether it is possible to identify a heat source (simulating a surgical wound), track this heat source in real time, and adjust a laser indicator (simulating a surgical light beam) mounted on an articulating assembly (analogous to an SLS). A system was developed that used an algorithm that identified and tracked a heat source and communicated to an automated articulating assembly to keep the laser indicator pointed at the heat source. The heat source was identified using thermal cameras and tracked using stereo optical cameras in three-dimensional space. The tracking accuracy and the manipulation accuracy were tested, and the results demonstrated that the combination of optical and thermal cameras with stereo image-processing techniques could be used to identify and track a heat source. This could further be used to guide an articulated assembly to keep a light beam pointed at the heat source with good accuracy. Therefore, this technology will contribute towards achieving full automation of SLS in the future. Following from the conclusions of this thesis, aspects have been identified and recommended for future research to achieve full automation and solve all SLS complications in the future.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: irurgiese ligstelsels (CLS’e) word gebruik om optimale ligtoestande tydens chirurgiese prosedures te verseker. Tans word dit deur die chirurg of ander personeel in die operasiesaal (OS) verstel. Om die CLS met die hand te verstel, is problematies weens die vereistes van 'n steriele omgewing. Chirurge wat nie die CLS self verstel nie, moet hul vereistes so kommunikeer sodat die verstelling deur die OS-assistente voldoende is om optimale chirurgiese omstandighede te verseker. Ander komplikasies met die huidige CLS sluit in: meganiese probleme, botsings, ontoeganklikheid en beligtingskwessies. Dit sal dus voordelig wees as die CLS geoutomatiseer kan word om die wond te verlig sonder insette van die chirurg. Die doel van hierdie projek was dus om te toets of dit moontlik is om 'n hittebron (wat die chirurgiese wond voorstel) te identifiseer, hierdie hittebron te volg en 'n laseraanwyser (simulasie van die chirurgiese ligstraal) aan te pas met 'n ge-artikulerende arm (voorstelling van 'n CLS). 'n Stelsel is ontwikkel wat 'n algoritme gebruik om 'n hittebron te identifiseer en te volg. Die inligting is dan oorgedra na 'n gemotoriseerde artikulerende arm, om die laseraanwyser na die hittebron te rig. Termiese kameras het die hittebron geïdentifiseer terwyl stereo-optiese kameras gebruik is om die hittebron te volg soos wat dit beweeg het. Die akkuraatheid van die arm se beheer is getoets en die resultate het getoon dat die kombinasie van optiese en termiese kameras met stereobeeld-verwerkingstegnieke gebruik kan word om 'n hittebron te identifiseer en te volg. Dit kan verder gebruik word om 'n artikulerende arm aan te pas om 'n ligstraal te rig na die hittebron, met voldoende akkuraatheid. As gevolg van die akkuraatheid sal hierdie tegnologie in die toekoms bydra tot die volle outomatisering van CLS. Na aanleiding van die gevolgtrekkings van hierdie tesis, is daar sekere aspekte geïdentifiseer en aanbevelings gemaak vir toekomstige navorsing om volle outomatisering te bereik en alle SLS-komplikasies in die toekoms op te los.

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