Development and evaluation of a personal internet-usage-at-work structural model
Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.
ENGLISH SUMMARY : The advent of the internet and smartphones have brought luxuries into the daily routines of people world-wide, who are granted access to use them from basically anywhere in the world. Not only have these technological advances changed the lives of everyday individuals, but they have also brought changes to the world of work and have had a profound impact on the behaviour of employees. The introduction of the internet into organisations leveraged an array of opportunities, applications and attendant advantages in the place of work, such as, for example, increased speed of communication between employees. However, despite the benefits of the internet in the workplace, internet use during office hours also has a downside. Accessibility to the internet allows employees the opportunity to engage in non-work-related web activities like cyberloafing, and as a consequence possibly increasing the personal internet use (PIU) of employees during office hours. This study uses the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model as an established theoretical framework to inform the development and evaluation of a PIU structural model, identifying specific antecedents influencing PIU at work. PIU is a valuable construct to investigate, as it is important to understand the level of PIU and what stimulates PIU behaviour in organisations. A review of the literature uncovered many antecedents of PIU, but the primary aim of this study was to examine how specific salient antecedents, that is specific personality traits (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to experience, and Extraversion), different organisational cultures (Clan, Adhocracy, Market and Hierarchy) and specific job demands influence PIU at work. An ex-post factor correlation design was used to test the formulated hypotheses. Convenience sampling was used to select the sample. Furthermore, quantitative data was collected from 133 employees currently working in organisations. The variables in the proposed structural model were measured by sending a link with a comprehensive questionnaire to employees. The questionnaire consisted of different measuring instruments, namely the Job Demands-Resources Scale, the Organisational Culture Measuring Instrument, the Mini-PIPI and a PIU measure. Gender, employee’s position in the company and age were measured via biographical questions in the survey. Twenty-nine proposed hypotheses were tested. Item analysis, partial least squares (PLS) and multiple regression analysis were conducted to analyse the data that was collected and also to report on the nature of the paths. From the 29 hypotheses formulated for this study, only two were found to be statistically significant, namely the relationship between cyberloafing and e-citizenship, as well as one moderating effect. From the 27 statistically insignificant paths, 17 were related to moderating effects. The statistically insignificant results could be due to many reasons and are discussed in the study. The study highlights some interesting aspects regarding PIU and its antecedents. Based on the results, possible interventions are suggested to help reduce PIU during office hours. Furthermore, the limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are discussed.
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