Design of a multi-hop ad-hoc outdoor wireless sensor network

Wotherspoon, Jonathan Bruce (2019-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Currently the inability to monitor rhino and other endangered animal species in real time is hindering the e ort to reduce poaching. This thesis proposes a multi-hop adhoc wireless sensor network (WSN) to deliver behavioural and positional data from an on-animal tag to a database in real-time. After practical testing, a LoRa capable radio frequency module operating at a frequency of 433 MHz was chosen. Each WSN node is power-aware and sustains its battery with energy harvested from solar radiation. A multi-hop ad-hoc routing protocol routes communication from an on-animal tag to the nearest server node. WSN nodes can detect breaks in a communication route and can request an alternative route on demand. During practical testing over a 45 km route with 3 WSN nodes, an on-animal tag mounted at rhino ear-height and ankle-height was able to successfully communicate 92.5% and 64.6% of messages respectively. A server node received 96% of communication from an on-animal tag, routed through 2 WSN nodes which were spread over 14 km. The report concludes by detailing improvements and future work to the research project before it could be commercially viable.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wildbewarings veldtogte word tans belemmer deur tegnologiese tekortkominge wat verhoed dat bedreigde spesies intyds bewaak en beskerm kan word. Hierdie tesis vervat `n omskrywing van die navorsing wat gedoen is om `n koordlose veelsprongige ad-hok bewakingsnetwerk (WSN) te ontwikkel en te implementeer wat ten doel is om liggingsinligting van `n op-dier-toestel intyds na `n databasis te versend. Na aanleiding van praktiese eksperimente is die stelsel met `n 433 MHz LoRa radiomodule bewerkstellig. Elke bewakingsnetwerknodus is kragstandbewus en onderhou sy eie battery met energie wat vanaf die son opgewek is. `n Veelsprongige ad-hok herleidingsprotokol herlei boodskappe vanaf die op-dier-toestel na die naaste bedieningsnodus. Indien `n bewakingsnetwerknodus `n onderbreking in versendingsroete identi seer, kan `n alternatiewe roete aangevra word. Praktiese eksperimente is met 3 bewakingsnetwerknodusse en `n op-dier-toestel teen renosteroorhoogte en -enkelhoogte uit gevoer. Daar was bevind dat 92.5% van alle boodskappe teen renosteroorhoogte en 64.6% van alle boodskappe ten renosterenkelhoogte suksesvol versend is. `n Bedienernodus was in staat om 96% van die boodskappe wat deur twee bewakingsnetwerknodusse herlei was te ontvang. Die bewakingsnetwerknodusse was oor `n bereik van 14 km uit mekaar uit versprei. Die tesis sluit af met voorstelle oor toekomstige verbeteringe wat bewerkstellig sal moet word voordat die stelsel handelsgeregtig sal wees.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105900
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