The internal syntax of the Chimakonde determiner phrase

Makanjila, Dominick (2019-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the Government-and-Binding theory of generative syntax (cf. Chomsky, 1981), it was posited that a functional head D(eterminer) heads a noun phrase (NP). This view is referred to as a Determiner Phrase (DP) hypothesis (Abney, 1987). English articles are uncontroversially viewed as instantiations of D. Consequently, some scholars hold that a DP projects only in languages with articles (cf. Bruening, 2009). However, the universal view of the DP hypothesis, which this study also invokes, is that both languages with and without articles project a DP (cf. Veselovská, 2014). It is argued that articles (like those found in English) are not the only forms through which the functional category D can manifest. Different languages have different manifestations of the functional category D. The category D is viewed as the locus of (in)definiteness and (non-)specificity). As Chindonde (the Chimakonde dialect of which this study investigates the DP) does not exhibit articles nor does it have preprefixes which are also assumed to be instantiations of the functional category D in some Bantu languages (cf. Asiimwe, 2014 for Runyankore-Rukiga), the question which the present study investigated was, therefore, how the functional category D is realised morpho-syntactically in Chimakonde. To this end, the interpretation of the DP when a nominal modifier occurs pre-nominally and post-nominally was examined. This study assumed the minimalism and cartography programs as theoretical framework. These two generative syntax programmes were complemented by the semantic approaches to of (in)definiteness) and (non-)specificity posited in Lyons (1999) as well as the key notions of information structure postulated in Lambrecht (1994). The data were collected through introspection, supplemented by consultation with other native speakers of Chimakonde throughout the period of the study. Through introspection and consultations with Chimakonde native speakers, it was possible to collect non-linguistic information about Chimakonde and the data regarding various morpho-syntactic aspects relevant to the study. Furthermore, relevant studies on Chimakonde such as descriptive grammars, dissertations and articles were also consulted. The major finding of the study demonstrates that Chimakonde provides evidence for positing the functional category D in the form of the core demonstrative roots a- and u-. In Chimakonde, these roots occur optionally in postnominal position to encode deictic meaning. However, they occur obligatorily in prenominal position to encode contrastive focus, emphasis or added specificity. In light of the interpretations of the demonstrative root which obtain in prenominal position, it is postulated in this study that the demonstrative root bears the added specificity and contrastive focus features, thus instantiating the functional Determiner category (D) which heads a Chimakonde DP.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In generatiewe sintaksis (cf. Chomsky, 1981) is gepostuleer dat ‘n funksionele kategorie D (vir die Engelse term ‘Determiner’) as kern van ‘n naamwoordfrase (NP) verskyn. Hierdie siening word na verwys as die DP hipotese (Abney, 1987). Artikels (lidwoorde) in Engels word onkontroversieel beskou as voorbeelde van die funksionele kategorie D. Aldus is sommige navorsers (cf. Bruenig, 2009), van mening dat die DP (‘Determiner phrase’) slegs projekteer in tale met die D elemente (lidwoode). Die universele siening van die DP hipotese, wat hierdie studie voorstaan, behels dat sowel tale met en sonder artikels (lidwoorde) ‘n DP projekteer (cf. Veselovska 2014). Dit word betoog in hierdie studie dat artikels (soos die in Engels) nie die enigste elemente is waardeur die funksionele kategorie D manifesteer nie. Verskillende tale kan verskillende manifestasies hê van die funksionele kategorie D. Die kategorie D word beskou as die lokus van (on)bepaaldheid en (nie-)spesifisiteit in hierdie studie. Aangesien Chindonde (die Chimakonde dialek waarvan hierdie studie die DP ondersoek), nie artikels het nie, en ook nie gekenmerk word deur ‘n naamwoordklas pre-prefiks nie, wat ook beskou word as verteenwoordigend van die funksionele kategorie D in sommige Bantutale (cf. Asiimwe vir Runyankore-Rukiga), ‘n vraag wat hierdie studie ondersoek het, was dus hoe die funksionele kategorie D morfo-sintakties gerealiseer word in Chindonde-Chimakonde. Vir hierdie doel is die interpretasie van die DP ondersoek in gevalle waar die onderskeie nominale bepalers respektiewelik voor, en na die naamwoordkern verskyn. Hierdie studie aanvaar die Minimalisme en Kartografie programme as teoretiese raamwerk. Hierdie twee generatiewe sintaksis programme is komplementerend ingespan met die semantiese benaderings tot (on)bepaaldheid en (nie-)spesifisiteit gepostuleer in Lyons (1999) asook die sleutelbegrippe van informasiestruktuur studie gepostuleer deur Lambrecht (1994). Die data gebruik in die studie is verkry deur introspeksie en deur konsultasie met ander eerstetaalsprekers van die Chindonde dialek van Chimakonde deur die tydperk van studie. Deur hierdie introspeksie en konsultasies met Chindonde-Chimakonde sprekers, was dit moontlik om nie-linguistiese inligting te verkry rakende die Chimakonde taal sowel as die data relevant tot die verskillende morfo-sintaktiese aspekte relevant tot die studie. Voorts is relevante studies oor Chimakonde, soos deskriptiewe grammatikas, dissertasies en tydskrifartikels ook gekonsulteer. Die hoofbevindinge van die studie demonstreer dat Chindonde Chimakonde evidensie bied vir die postulering van die funksionele kategorie D in die vorm van die kern demonstratiewe wortels a- en u-. In Chimakonde verskyn hierdie wortels opsioneel in post-nominale posisie ten einde deiktiese betekenis te enkodeer. Hulle verskyn egter verpligtend in pre-nominale posisie om kontrastiewe fokus, emfase, of bykomende spesifisiteit te enkodeer. In die lig van die interpretasies van die demonstratiewe wortel, postuleer hierdie studie dat die demonstratiewe wortel bykomende spesifisiteits- en kontrastiewe fokus kenmerke het, wat die funksionele kategorie D wat as kern van die DP verskyn, verteenwoordig.

IKISIRI: Katika sintaksia zalishi (Chomsky, 1981) inachukuliwa kwamba kibainishi ni neno kuu katika kirai nomino. Mtazamo huu unatokana na nadhariatete ya kirai kibainishi (Abney, 1987). Vijineno huchukuliwa kuwa ndivyo vinavyobeba virai vibainishi. Mawazo haya yamesababisha baadhi ya wataalamu kudai kwamba kirai kibainishi kinapatikana katika lugha zenye vijineno tu (Bruening, 2009). Hata hivyo, kwa mujibu wa nadhariatete ya kirai kibainishi, lugha zote; zenye vijineno na zile zisizo na vijineno huwa na kirai kibainishi. ( Veselovská, 2014). Katika utafiti huu tunaungana na madai haya ya nadhariatete ya kirai kibainishi. Aidha, inadaiwa kuwa vijineno si muundo pekee ambao kwao kategoria ya kibainishi hujidhihirisha. Lugha tofauti huwa na namna tofauti za kuidhihirisha kategoria ya kirai kibainishi. Kategoria ya kibainishi huchukuliwa kama sehemu isiyo na ukomo na majumui. Kwa mfano, Chindonde (lahaja ya Chimakonde ambayo ndio tunayoichunguza kirai kibainishi chake) hakioneshi vijineno wala viambishi awali ambavyo pia huchukuliwa kuwa ni kategoria ya kibainishi katika baadhi ya lugha za Kibantu (cf. Asiimwe, 2014 kwenye lugha ya Runyankore-Rukiga). Swali tulilokuwa tukijiuliza katika utafiti huu ni kwamba kategoria ya kibainishi inajidhihirishaje katika mofo-sintaksia ya Chindonde. Hatimaye, tafsiri ya kirai kibainishi kinapotokea mwanzoni na mwishoni mwa nomino vilichunguzwa. Utafiti huu ulitumia programu ya ukeefu na programu ya kategrafi kama viunzi vya nadharia. Aidha, programu hizi mbili za kisintaksia zilijalizwa na kanuni ya kisemantiki ya usoukomo na majumui ya Lyons (1999) pamoja na dhana za muundo wa taarifa kama inavyodaiwa na Lambrecht (1994). Data zilipatikana kwa kutumia tajiriba ya mtafiti lakini zilijalizwa kwa kujadiliana na wazawa wa Chimakonde katika kipindi chote cha utafiti. Kwa kutumia tajiriba na majadiliano na wazungumzaji wazawa wa Chimakonde iliwezekana kukusanya taarifa zisizo za kiisimu kuhusu Chimakonde na data kuhusiana na vipengele mbalimbali vya kimofo-sintaksia vinavyohusiana na utafiti wetu. Zaidi ya hayo maandiko yanayohusiana na Chimakonde kama vile; sarufi fafanuzi, tasnifu na makala yalipitiwa. Utafiti unaonesha kwamba Chimakonde kinatoa ushahidi kwa kuweka kategoria ya kibainishi katika muundo wa mizizi ya vioneshi a- na u-. Katika Chimakonde, mizizi hii hutokea ikiwa si ya lazima baada ya nomino ikiwa na dhima ya kioneshi kibainishi.Hata hivyo, mizizi hii hutokea kabla ya nomino vikiwa ni vya lazima na hubeba dhima ya kutofautisha, kusisitizo, au umahususi. Kutokana na dhima ya mizizi ya vioneshi vinapotokea kabla ya nomino, inadaiwa katika utafiti huu huwa na dhima ya kubainisha na hivyo kuingia katika kategoria ya kibainishi ambacho ni neno kuu katika kirai kibainishi.

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