Pre-feasibility model for the creation of green pedestrian zones

Maritz, Anneri (2019-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: City centres facilitate various activities ranging from business and cultural activities to providing residential accommodation (Coca-Stefaniak, 2013). A healthy environment is of importance to ensure the optimal functioning of a city or town centre for its users and residents (Derby City Council, 2017). Unfortunately it can be expected that future environmental problems may be concentrated in urban areas (CSIR, 1999). There are various methods to aid in mitigating the negative effects associated with environmental problems (Hawley, 2014). In this study, green pedestrian schemes are investigated as a solution. By creating pedestrian zones in city areas, also utilizing green engineering technologies, the amount of green space in the city per capita will increase (Lee et al., 2015). It is anticipated that with more green space, there should be retardation in urban sprawling and other associated benefits including environmental, health, social and economic benefits (Blaga, 2013). The primary aim of this study is to develop a pre-feasibility model to be used as aid in determining if the implementation of a green pedestrian zone would be feasible in an area as identified by local authorities. The pre-feasibility model entails a combination of mathematical modelling and other decision modelling techniques. The pre-feasibility model consists of two parts namely a location characteristic checklist and a mathematical model. The location characteristic checklist aids in determining whether a proposed area would be suitable for a successful pedestrian zone. From literature and industry critique it can be concluded that the most significant characteristics for a successful pedestrian zone are that the area should have a mixed land use, should be within close proximity of public transport facilities and should provide a sense of safety and security. The second part of the pre-feasibility model is a mathematical model. The effects of pedestrian schemes on air quality, economic factors, social factors and the traffic on the surrounding network are modelled. Multiple linear regression was used to predict what the expected increase or decrease in certain air pollutants could be post pedestrianization as a result of the removal of vehicles and the application of green engineering technologies to the proposed area. Averages of previous studies regarding economic, social and traffic circumstances are determined and are presented in the pre-feasibility model as anticipated and expected benefits. As a final step, the developed pre-feasibility model is applied to the inner town centre of Stellenbosch. From the model outputs it is concluded that the identified area of Church Street, Andringa Street and Ryneveld Street adhere to most of the location characteristics except for the proposed area not being within close proximity of public transport facilities. It is further found that the pedestrian scheme may have a slight worsening effect on the air quality in total. The implementation of green engineering technologies will however contribute to the removal of additional air pollutants. The predetermined economic and social benefits are expected to be positive based on previous studies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie aktiwiteite word deur ‘n middestad geakkomodeer. Hierdie aktiwiteite sluit besigheids- en kulturele aktiwitieite in asook verblyfsgeleenthede (Coca-Stefaniak, 2013). Die welstand van ’n middestad speel dus ‘n belangrike rol om te verseker dat die stad optimaal funksioneer (Derby City Council, 2017). As gevolg van vinnige verstedeliking en groei in die bevolkingsdigtheid, word daar verwag dat toekomstige omgewingsprobleme in stedelike areas gekonsentreerd sal wees (CSIR, 1999). Daar is verskeie metodes om die negatiewe uitwerking van hierdie omgewingsprobleme teen te werk (Hawley, 2014). Groen voetgangersones word in hierdie studie nagevors as oplossing. Deur voetganersones met addisionele groen ingenieurstegnologië in stedelike gebiede te skep, is daar ‘n toename in die groen spasie area per persoon (Lee et al., 2015). Daar word verwag dat meer groen spasie ‘n vertraging in stedelike verspreiding asook ander voordele soos omgewing-, gesondheids-, sosiale- en ekonomies voordele teweeg sal bring (Blaga, 2013). Die hoofdoel van hierdie studie is om ‘n pre-lewensvatbaarheid model te ontwikkel wat gebruik kan word as hulpmiddel om te bepaal of die implementering van ‘n groen voetgangersone in ‘n area, soos geidentifiseer deur plaaslike owerhede, lewensvatbaar sal wees of nie. Die pre-lewensvatbaarheid model is ‘n kombinasie van ‘n wiskundige model en ander besluitnemingstegnieke. Die pre-lewensvatbaarheid model bestaan uit twee dele, naamlik ‘n kontrolelys en ‘n wiskundige model. Die kontrolelys vir ligging eienskappe help in die bepaling of ‘n voorgestelde area vir ‘n voetgangersone gepas sal wees om ‘n suksesvolle voetgagersone te verseker. Vanuit die literatuur en kritiek ontvang vanuit die industrie, is daar tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat noodsaaklike eienskappe vir ‘n suksesvolle voetgangersone insluit dat die area gemengde gebruike moet hê, dat die area naby publieke vervoer fasiliteite moet wees en dat die area die gevoel van veiligheid en sekuriteit moet skep. Die tweede gedeelte van die pre-lewensvatbaarheid model is ‘n wiskundige model. Die uitwerking van voetgangersones op die kwaliteit van die lug, ekonomie, sosiale aspekte en die verkeer in die omliggende netwerk word gemodelleer. Veelvoudige lineêre regressie is gebruik om te voorspel wat die verwagte toename of afname in sekere lugbesoedelingstowwe sal wees na die implementering van ‘n voetgangersone as gevolg van die verwydering van voertuie en die toepassing van groen ingenieurstegnologië in die voorgestelde area. Die gemiddeldes van vorige studies in verband met die ekonomiese-, sosiale- en verkeerstoestande is bepaal en voorgestel in die pre-lewensvatbaarheid model as verwagte voordele. Die pre-lewensvatbaarheidmodel is toegepas op die middedorp van Stellenbosch. Vanuit die modelresultate kan afgelei word dat die voorgestelde area van Kerkstraat, Andringastraat en Ryneveldstraat voldoen aan die meerderheid liggingeienskappe behalwe dat die voorgestelde area nie naby publieke vervoer fasiliteite geleë is nie. Verder is daar gevind dat die voorgestelde voetgangersone ‘n effense negatiewe uitwerking op die kwaliteit van lug sal hê. Die implementering van groen ingenieurstegnologië sal egter bydra tot die verwydering van addisionele lugbesoedelingstowwe. Betreffende die ekonomiese en sosiale voordele word daar verwag dat dit positief sal wees soos bepaal uit vorige studies.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105801
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