Characteristics and patterns of migration to and from Mpumalanga Province, 2011-2016

Mulibana, Pinki Lorraine (2019-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Migration can be defined as the movement by persons, households or crowds of people from one area to another. The movement can be permanent, temporary, voluntary, involuntary,i internal or external. The volumes of migration can result in desirable and undesirable elements at origins and destinations. More diversity amongst areas results in higher levels of migration. Under such conditions, good opportunities arise and attract people who are not satisfied with their places of origin. Rich countries see immigration as an economic challenge, because it increases criminality and causes social tension. However, skilled and highly educated migrants come within formation that may help in the development of the country. In South Africa, urbanisation is the cause of increment of population in the urbancities. Recent studies show that counter-urbanisation can be a solution to the rural human capital flight by encouraging development in rural areas and increasing economic opportunities, facilities and crucial skills.This research examines the in and out trends and patterns of migration of Mpumalanga during the period 2011 to 2016. The research shows that Gauteng had the largest percentage (35,3%) of out-migrants to Mpumalanga, followed by Limpopo province with a percentage of 23,6% and KwaZulu-Natal with a percentage of 16,8%. Gauteng also had the highest percentage (57,8%) of in-migrants from Mpumalanga, followed by Limpopo (9,3%), Eastern Cape(8,3%) and KwaZulu-Natal (7,2%). The movement of people to and from Mpumalanga contributes towards the development of Mpumalanga. The rate at which migration takes place in Mpumalanga is posing a big challenge to the province and municipality infrastructures, especially on planning and service delivery. The majority of people from different provinces prefer to relocate to Emalahleni (0,15%), followed by Thembisile (0,13%) and Steve Tshwete (0,13%) municipalities. Few people preferred the Emakhanzeni (0,01%), Mkhondo (0,01%) and Dr Pixley Ka IsakaSeme (0,02%) municipalities. The majority of people from Mpumalanga province are coming from Thembisile municipality (0,22%), followed by Govan Mbeki municipality(0,12%). Socio-economic characteristics such as education and looking for paid work are found to be the main reasons for movement to the current place. This pattern is seen across all provinces. The results give a comprehension of the vicissitudes in migration to and from Mpumalanga, and this can help in planning and strategy.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Migrasie kan gedefinieer word as die beweging deur persone, huishoudings of menigte mense van een gebied na 'n ander. Die beweging kan permanent, tydelik, vrywillig, onwillekeurig, intern of ekstern wees. Die volumes van migrasie kan lei tot gewenste en ongewenste elemente by oorsprong en bestemmings. Meer diversiteit tussen gebiede lei tot hoër vlakke van migrasie. Onder sulke omstandighede ontstaan goeie geleenthede en lok mense wat nie tevrede is met hul plekke van herkoms nie. Ryk lande beskou immigrasie as 'n ekonomiese uitdaging omdat dit kriminaliteit verhoog en sosiale spanning veroorsaak. Geskoolde en hoogs opgevoede immigrante kom egter met inligting wat kan help met die ontwikkeling van die land. In Suid-Afrika is verstedeliking die oorsaak van 'n toename van die stedelike bevolking. Onlangse studies toon aan dat teenverstedeliking 'n oplossing vir die landelike menslike kapitaalvlug kan wees deur ontwikkeling in landelike gebiede aan te moedig en ekonomiese geleenthede, fasiliteite en belangrike vaardighede te verhoog. Hierdie studie ondersoek die neigings en patrone van migrasie van en na Mpumalanga gedurende die tydperk 2011 tot 2016. Die navorsing toon dat Gauteng die grootste persentasie (35,3%) van migrante na Mpumalanga gehad het, gevolg deur Limpopo met 'n persentasie van 23,6% en KwaZulu-Natal met 'n persentasie van 16,8%. Gauteng het ook die hoogste persentasie (57,8%) immigrante uit Mpumalanga gehad, gevolg deur Limpopo (9,3%), Oos-Kaap (8,3%) en KwaZulu-Natal (7,2%). Die beweging van mense na en van Mpumalanga dra by tot die ontwikkeling van Mpumalanga. Die tempo waarteen migrasie in Mpumalanga plaasvind, is 'n groot uitdaging vir die provinsie en munisipaliteite se infrastruktuur, veral ten opsigte van beplanning en dienslewering. Die meerderheid mense uit verskillende provinsies verkies om na die munisipale gebiede van Emalahleni (0,15%) enThembisile (0,13%) te migreer, gevolg deur dieSteve Tshwete (0,13%) munisipaliteit. Min mense verkies die Emahkanzeni (0,01%), Mhkhondo (0,01%) en Dr Pixley Ka IsakaSeme (0,02%) munisipaliteite. Die meeste mense uit die Mpumalanga kom uit die Thembisile Munisipaliteit (0,22%), gevolg deur die Govan Mbeki Munisipalitiet met 0,12%). Daar is bevind dat sosio-ekonomiese eienskappe soos onderwys en die soeke na betaalde werk die vernaamste redes vir die beweging na die huidige plek is. Hierdie patroon word in alle provinsies gesien. Die resultate gee 'n begrip van wisselvallighede van migrasie na en van Mpumalanga en dit kan help met beplanning en strategie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105701
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