Assessing collaborative environmental governance : a case study of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve in South Africa

Amah, Dede (2018-12)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Under the current trajectory of declining biodiversity and environmental problems, several initiatives have emerged to promote sustainable development. One such initiative that provides the platform for reconciling the often conflicting imperatives of conservation and socio-economic development is the concept of biosphere reserves. One way the biosphere reserve concept functions is through collaboration and deliberate stakeholders engagement. Thus, this study assessed the effect of collaborative governance on environmental and socio-economic development outcomes in the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve (KBR) in South Africa. Using a review of existing literature, an assessment framework for collaborative governance was developed, comprising of an iterative circle of system context, dynamics and outcomes. The system context entails the elements that dictate the conditions within which collaborative governance evolves, the dynamics are the factors that stimulate or influence collaboration and determine how the process turns out, and outcomes are the results and benefits that are derived from collaboration. This assessment framework was applied to the KBR case study, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies comprising interviews, and analysis of relevant publications and reports written about the KBR. In total about twenty five people from the public sectors, private institutions, businesses, Non-Governmental Organisations, academia and the community were interviewed. Using a list of pre-defined themes from the literature, a content analysis of the interview findings and documents was done, exploring the themes of institutional, environmental and socio-economic development outcomes of collaboration. In answering the research question ‘What is the effect of collaboration on environmental and socio-economic development outcomes in a biosphere reserve?’, the study first note a strong correlation between collaboration and outcomes, in the sense that where there is collaboration, there are positive outcomes, and where there is a lack of collaboration, expected results are not achieved. Secondly, the study found that where environmental conservation does not promote socio-economic development, outcomes are not sustainable. Collaboration in the KBR, has, to some extent, improved certain outcomes, particularly those relating to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem management and awareness creation. The same, however, cannot be said about the socio-economic development outcomes, which the study found are not adequately addressed. Hence, in the light of the above findings, there is a need for the KBR to revisit its core strategic objectives, to ensure that its conservation and socio-economic development goals are integrated and fairly balanced in order to ensure sustainability.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Onder die huidige trajek van dalende biodiversiteit en omgewingsprobleme het verskeie inisiatiewe ontstaan om volhoubare ontwikkeling te bevorder. Een so 'n inisiatief wat die platform bied om die dikwels teenstrydige noodsaaklikhede van bewaring en sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling te versoen, is die konsep van biosfeerreservate. Een manier waarop die biosfeerreservaat konsep funksioneer, is deur samewerking en doelbewuste betrokkenheid van belanghebbendes. So het hierdie studie die effek van gesamentlike regering op omgewings- en sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkelingsuitkomste in die Kogelberg Biosfeerreservaat (KBR) in Suid-Afrika beoordeel. Met behulp van 'n oorsig van bestaande literatuur, is 'n assesseringsraamwerk ontwikkel om samewerkende regering te beoordeel, bestaande uit 'n iteratiewe sirkel van stelselkonteks, dinamika en uitkomste. Die stelselkonteks behels die elemente wat die toestande bepaal waarbinne samewerkende bestuur ontwikkel, die dinamika is die faktore wat samewerking stimuleer of beïnvloed, en bepaal hoe die proses uitdraai en uitkomste is die resultate en voordele wat uit samewerking verkry word. Hierdie assesseringsraamwerk is toegepas op die KBR, deur gebruik te maak van kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe metodologieë wat onderhoude insluit, en analise van relevante publikasies en verslae oor die KBR. In totaal is daar onderhoude gevoer met omtrent vyf en twintig mense uit die openbare sektore, private instellings, besighede, nie-regeringsorganisasies, akademie en die gemeenskap. Met behulp van 'n lys vooraf gedefinieerde temas uit die literatuur, is 'n inhoudsanalise van die onderhoudsbevindinge en dokumente gedoen, wat die temas van institusionele, omgewings- en sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkelingsuitkomste van samewerking ondersoek het. By die beantwoording van die navorsingsvraag 'Wat is die effek van samewerking op omgewings- en sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkelingsuitkomste in 'n biosfeerreservaat?', toon die studie eerstens 'n sterk verband tussen samewerking en uitkomste, in die sin dat waar daar samewerking bestaan, daar positiewe uitkomste is, en waar daar 'n gebrek aan samewerking is, word verwagte resultate nie behaal nie. Tweedens het die studie bevind dat waar die omgewingsbewaring nie sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling bevorder nie, uitkomste nie volhoubaar is nie. Samewerking in die KBR het tot ‘n sekere mate, sekere uitkomste verbeter, veral dié wat verband hou met bewaring van biodiversiteit, ekosisteembestuur en bewusmaking. Dieselfde kan egter nie gesê word oor die sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkelingsuitkomste nie, wat die studie bevind nie voldoende aangespreek word nie. Daarom is daar 'n behoefte vir die KBR om, in die lig van bogenoemde bevindinge, sy kern strategiese doelwitte te heroorweeg, om te verseker dat sy bewarings- en sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkelingsdoelwitte geïntegreer en redelik gebalanseer word om volhoubaarheid te verseker.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105054
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