Influence of self-control, risk-taking, manipulation and integrity on organisational citizenship behaviour

Barrett, Ronalda (2018-12)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Organisations across the world are becoming increasingly more globalised and in order to remain competitive, organisations need to pay attention to their innovation, flexibility, responsiveness and productivity. The goal is not only to survive, but also to succeed in their respective industries. Research has proven that employee behaviours that go beyond the call of duty, assist organisations in remaining competitive in their industries as well as in achieving long-term success. The term organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) was first explored by Bateman and Organ (1983), who referred to it as certain behaviours that benefit organisations, though these behaviours cannot be enforced by formal role requirements of an organisation, or come about by a contractual agreement of remuneration. It is voluntary employee behaviour that is performed without the expectation of reward, which leads not only to improved organisational performance, but it also has an advantageous impact on the employees themselves (Organ, 1988). Research on OCB has determined that individuals with certain characteristics are more likely to exhibit behaviours that go beyond what is required of them. In fact, various characteristics have been identified that may be associated with OCB. To explore this matter further, a theoretical model was developed that proposes certain relationships between self-control, risk-taking, manipulation and integrity, and which may impact the degree to which employees exhibit OCB. It was hypothesised that manipulation will negatively influence OCB, while self-control and integrity will positively influence OCB. It was further hypothesised that self-control will positively influence integrity, while risk-taking and manipulation will negatively influence integrity. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop and test a structural model which explains the impact that certain employee characteristics have on integrity and OCB. Data for this study was collected from a sample of 211 employees within a private hospital in the Southern Cape. The respondents completed a questionnaire that comprised of five different assessment instruments: the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS); the Risk-Taking Index (RTI); the Manipulativeness dimension of the Organisational Machiavellianism Scale (OMS); the Ethical Integrity Test (EIT); and the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS). The hypotheses and structural model were empirically tested, using various statistical methods. Each of the measurement scales was subjected to item and reliability analysis, which was found to be satisfactory. Furthermore, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on the measurement models, and results indicated that reasonable fit was achieved for all the measurement models. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was then utilised to ascertain the extent to which the conceptual model fitted the data, as well as to test the relationships among the respective constructs. The results indicated that significant positive relationships exist between self-control and organisational citizenship behaviour, as well as integrity and organisational citizenship behaviour. It also indicated that significant negative relationships exist between manipulation and integrity, as well as between manipulation and organisational citizenship behaviour. The results, however, indicated only partial support (through Pearson correlations) for the postulated relationships between self-control and integrity, and between risk-taking and integrity. This study contributes to existing literature by providing insight into the relationships among self-control, risk-taking, manipulation, integrity and OCB. Conclusions were drawn based on these findings, and implications were proposed for managers in organisations. In addition, limitations within the study were identified and recommendations were made for future research.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Organisasies regoor die wêreld raak al hoe meer geglobaliseerd. Om mededingend te bly, moet organisasies op innovasie, buigsaamheid, responsiwiteit en produktiwiteit fokus. Die doel is nie net om te oorleef nie, maar om suksesvol te wees in hul onderskeie bedrywe. Navorsing het bewys dat werknemers wat meer doen as hulle plig hul organisasies help om mededingend te bly en dit bring mee dat organisasies op die langtermyn sukses behaal. Die term organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag is vir die eerste keer deur Bateman en Organ (1983) ondersoek wat daarna verwys het as sekere gedrag waarby organisasies baat kan vind, alhoewel hierdie gedrag nie deur formele rolvereistes van 'n organisasie afgedwing kan word of deur 'n kontraktuele ooreenkoms van vergoeding in werking gestel kan word nie. Dit is die vrywillige gedrag van werksnemers wat uitgevoer word sonder die verwagting van ‘n beloning, wat lei tot verbeterde organisatoriese prestasie, maar wat ook voordele vir die werknemers self inhou (Organ, 1988). Navorsing oor organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag het bevind dat individue met sekere karaktereienskappe geneig is om meer te doen as wat van hulle vereis word. Trouens, verskeie eienskappe is geïdentifiseer wat met organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag geassosieer kan word. Om hierdie saak verder te verken is 'n teoretiese model ontwikkel wat die verband tussen risikoneming, manipulasie, selfbeheersing, en integriteit voorstel wat die mate waarin werknemers organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag uitbeeld, kan beïnvloed. Dit is veronderstel dat manipulasie organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag negatief sal beïnvloed, terwyl selfbeheersing en integriteit 'n positiewe effek op organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag sal hê. Dit was verder veronderstel dat selfbeheersing 'n positiewe invloed op integriteit sal hê, terwyl risikoneming en manipulasie integriteit negatief sal beïnvloed. Die hoofdoel van hierdie navorsing was om 'n strukturele model saam te stel en te toets om die impak wat sekere werknemer eienskappe op integriteit en organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag het te verklaar. Data vir hierdie studie was ingesamel met behulp van ‘n streekproef van 211 werknemers wat indiens was by 'n privaat hospitaal in die Suid-Kaap. Die respondente het 'n vraelys voltooi wat uit vyf verskillende meetinstrumente bestaan: die kort selfbeheersing skaal; die risikoneming indeks; die manipulerende dimensie van die organisatoriese Machiavellisme skaal; die etiese integriteitstoets; en die organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag skaal. Die hipoteses en strukturele model is empiries getoets met behulp van verskeie statistiese metodes. Elkeen van die metingskale is onderwerp aan ‘n item- en betroubaarheidsontleding, wat bevredigend bevind is. Verder is 'n bevestigende faktorontleding gedoen op die metingsmodelle, en die resultate het aangedui dat ‘n redelike passing behaal is vir al die metingsmodelle. Strukturele vergelykingsmodellering is ook aangewend om vas te stel tot watter mate die konseptuele model die data pas asook om die verband tussen die onderskeie veranderlikes te toets. Die resultate dui daarop dat ‘n beduidend positiewe verband tussen selfbeheersing en organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag bestaan, asook tussen integriteit en organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag. Dit het ook aangedui dat ‘n beduidend negatiewe verband tussen manipulasie en integriteit bestaan, asook tussen manipulasie en organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag. Die resultate dui egter aan dat slegs gedeeltelike ondersteuning (deur Pearson-korrelasies) vir die verband tussen selfbeheersing en integriteit, asook risikoneming en integriteit gevind is. Hierdie studie dra by tot bestaande literatuur deur insig te verskaf oor die verband tussen risikoneming, selfbeheersing, manipulasie, integriteit en organisatoriese burgerskapgedrag. Gevolgtrekkings is gemaak op grond van die bevindinge en implikasies is voorgestel vir bestuurders in organisasies. Daarbenewens, is die beperkings van die studie geïdentifiseer en is aanbevelings vir toekomstige navorsing voorgestel.

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