Community distributed energy systems: an end-User energy services approach

Mabaso, Mbalenhle (2018-12)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study, a discomfort level framework is defined as a metric to interpret the improvement in energy services satisfied by different supply technology combinations. Generic distributed energy supply technologies including solar PV, wind power, small scale concentrating solar power (CSP), battery storage, diesel generators and solar water heaters were simulated (using hourly solar and wind resource data) to satisfy end-user energy services. To account for the unique nature of each residential community, a discomfort level was defined for the purpose of this study as an indicator to assess the ability of the supply technologies to satisfy energy services. The discomfort level is formulated based on the demand shortfall unique to the supply technology, the priority of end-use energy services from the user’s perspective and the energy service usage at each hourly interval. The model was applied to three residential communities including (i) eShushu a conceptual community, (ii) an urban informal settlement in Thembelihle, Johannesburg and (iii)a residential community on Likoma Island, Malawi. The discomfort levels werecompared to the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) for each of the cases and it isevident that the same technology combinations offer unique discomfort levels foreach community. In addition to this, specifying the energy services unsatisfied ateach hour by different supply technologies, provides an opportunity forcomplimentary energy storage and energy efficiency technologies. Althoughcomparing the discomfort levels to the LCOE often leads to a trade-off between thetwo, such an end-user approach offers the energy planner insight into the unique needs of the community when selecting distributed energy supply infrastructure key to socio-economic development and potentially the adoption of renewable energytechnologies in developing countries.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie studie word 'n ongemaklikheidsvlak verwysingsraamwerk gedefinieer as ʼn maatstaf vir die verbetering in energiediensverskaffing van verskillende tegnologie kombinasies. Generiese verspreide energievoorsieningstegnologieë, insluitend fotovoltaïese sonpanele (PV), windkrag, kleinskaalse gekonsentreerde sonkrag (CSP), batterye, diesel kragopwekkers en sonwaterverhitters is gesimuleer (met behulp van uurlikse son- en wind data) om die eindverbruiker se energiediensbehoefte te bevredig. Die unieke aard van elke residensiële gemeenskap is in ag geneem deur ongemaklikheidsvlakke te definieer sodat die vermoë van die energievoorsieningstegnologieë om die vereiste vraag na energiedienste te bevredig geëvalueer kan word. Die ongemaklikheidsvlakke is saamgestel op grond van die vraag tekort uniek aan die energievoorsieningstegnologie, die prioriteit vir energiedienste van die eindverbruiker en die energiediensverbruik vir elke uurlikse interval. Die model is toegepas op drie residensiële gemeenskappe, naamlik (i) eShushu, ʼn konseptuele gemeenskap, (ii) 'n stedelike informele nedersetting in Thembelihle, Johannesburg en (iii) 'n residensiële gemeenskap op Likoma Eiland, Malawi. Die ongemaklikheidsvlakke is vergelyk met die eenheidsverwysings waarde van energie (LCOE) vir elkeen van die gevallestudies en dit is duidelik dat dieselfde tegnologie kombinasies 'n unieke ongemaklikheidsvlak vir elke gemeenskap bied. Verder, deur die energiedienste wat nie in elke uur deur die verskillende energievoorsieningstegnologieë voorsien kon word nie te spesifiseer, bied 'n geleentheid vir komplimentêre batterye en energiedoeltreffendheid tegnologieë. Alhoewel die vergelyking van die ongemaklikheidsvlakke met die LCOE dikwels tot 'n kompromie lei, kan 'n eindverbruikersbenadering die energiebeplanner insig gee tot die unieke behoeftes van ʼn gemeenskap in die keuse van verspreide energievoorsieningstegnologieë, wat belangrik is vir sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling en moontlik ook vir die opneem van hernubare energie tegnologieë in ontwikkelende lande.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/104985
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