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Solvent extraction of polyphenolics from the indigenous African fruit ximenia caffra and characterization by LC-HRMS

dc.contributor.authorOosthuizen, Dewalden_ZA
dc.contributor.authorGoosen, Neill J.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorStander, Maria A.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorIbrahim, Aliyu D.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorPedavoah, Mary-Magdaleneen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorUsman, Grace O.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorAderinola, Taiwoen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2018-08-13T07:06:07Z
dc.date.available2018-08-13T07:06:07Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.citationOosthuizen, D., et al. 2018. Solvent extraction of polyphenolics from the indigenous African fruit ximenia caffra and characterization by LC-HRMS. Antioxidants, 7(8):103, doi:10.3390/antiox7080103
dc.identifier.issn2076-3921 (online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.3390/antiox7080103
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/104244
dc.descriptionCITATION: Oosthuizen, D., et al. 2018. Solvent extraction of polyphenolics from the indigenous African fruit ximenia caffra and characterization by LC-HRMS. Antioxidants, 7(8):103, doi:10.3390/antiox7080103.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at http://www.mdpi.com
dc.descriptionPublication of this article was funded by the Stellenbosch University Open Access Fund.
dc.description.abstractIndigenous and non-commercial fruits can be an important source of antioxidant polyphenols; however, the identity and content of polyphenols from non-commercial fruits are often poorly described. The study aimed to extract, identify, and quantify polyphenols from the skin of the indigenous Africa fruit Ximenia caffra, using solvent extraction. Three solvents (hexane, acetone, and 70% v/v ethanol) over three extraction times (30, 60 and 120 min) were used in a 3² full factorial experimental design to determine effects on polyphenol recovery, and individual polyphenolics were characterised using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Ethanol was the most effective extraction solvent, and extracts had high levels of total phenolics and flavonoids (65 mg gallic and 40 mg catechin equivalents per gram dry sample respectively), and high antioxidant activity (18.2 mg mL-1 ascorbic acid equivalents). LC-HRMS positively identified 16 compounds, of which 14 were flavonoids including flavonoid glycosides, and indicated that concentrations of some flavonoids decreased for extraction times beyond 60 min. It was concluded that the fruit of Ximenia caffra is rich in natural polyphenolic antioxidants; the present work identified and quantified a number of these, while also establishing suitable solvent extraction conditions for the recovery of these potentially high-value compounds.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttp://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/7/8/103
dc.format.extent13 pages
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherMDPI
dc.subjectPlant polyphenolsen_ZA
dc.subjectFlavonoidsen_ZA
dc.subjectSolvent extractionen_ZA
dc.titleSolvent extraction of polyphenolics from the indigenous African fruit ximenia caffra and characterization by LC-HRMSen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.description.versionPublisher's version
dc.rights.holderAuthors retain copyright


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