Internal migration in post-apartheid South Africa: The cases of the Western and Northern Cape

Eigelaar-Meets, Ilse (2018-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Internal migration in post-apartheid South Africa is the primary focus of this dissertation. The geographic focus is on two of the country’s current provinces. In both the Northern Cape and the Western Cape provinces, apartheid policies that restricted the free movement of certain South Africans were supplemented by further restrictions arising from the policy of Coloured Labour Preference. It is because of these legislative constraints that resulted in a distortion and interference of migratory waves and trends that these two provinces offer a unique opportunity to do systematic research. Accordingly, the study identifies and analyses the primary changes in the direction and nature of internal migration streams into and within these provinces subsequent to the end of the apartheid regime and scrapping of such restrictive policies. Method: The main demographic and locational characteristics used in this analysis are changes in the size of the overall migration streams, their shifting mix of population groups (Black African, Coloured, Indian/Asian and White), the age of migrants, and the urban, peri-urban or rural nature of these migrants’ destinations. Migration data from three post-apartheid periods - 1996-2001, 2001-2006 and 2006-2011 – are analysed so as to enable comparisons of migrant flows between each of these periods. Findings: Comparing the net-migration rates during the earlier and latter post apartheid periods, both provinces reveal a deceleration in general mobility and in urbanisation, suggesting a slowing down in net migration flows in the latter period. Measuring and describing how migrants in these two provinces move, data pertaining to both inter-provincial migration (movement across provincial boundaries) and intra-provincial migration (movement within provincial boundaries but across municipal district boundaries) are considered. Although some variation in movement is illustrated for the two provinces, the data clearly illustrates continuing urbanisation in the settlement patterns of migrants for both migration flows. Considering the characteristics of migrants, the data illustrated migrants as mostly mature adults (30-60 years of age), except for in-migrants to the Western Cape who are mostly younger adults (20-29 years of age). The Black African population is the most mobile within inter-provincial migration streams, with the Coloured population the most active in intra-provincial flows. When comparing pre- and post-1994 internal migration trends in the two provinces, the dissertation illuminates three specific shifts, (i) a change in the political context within which mobility is framed, (ii) a change in the type of internal migration flows that are sustaining urbanisation and, (iii) a change in the profile, specifically pertaining to population group, of migrants mobile in the two provinces. The dissertation concludes by making a case for the adoption of a strategic and concerted approach by governments to accommodate the developmental constraints and challenges posed by these forms of human mobility.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: Hierdie verhandeling fokus primêr op interne migrasie in post-apartheid Suid Afrika. Geografies fokus die tesis op twee van die land se huidige provinsies, naamlik die Noordkaap en die Weskaap. In beide hierdie provinsies het die apartheidsbeleid beperkinge geplaas op die vrye beweging van sekere Suid Afrikaners met verdere beperkings wat voortgevloei het uit die Kleurling Arbeidsvoorkeurwette. Dienooreenkomstig identifiseer en analiseer die studie primêre veranderinge in die rigting en die aard van interne migrasie strominge vanuit en na hierdie provinsies wat gevolg het op die beïndiging van die apartheidsregering (in 1994) en die gevolglike skrapping van hierdie wetgewing. Metode: Die hoof demografiese en vestigingskenmerke wat gebruik is in hierdie analise, hou verband met die verandering in die grootte van die oorkoepelende migrasie strominge, veranderinge in die samestelling van migrante, en die stedelik-, semi-stedelik, en landelike aard van die migrante se bestemmings. Migrante data van drie post-apartheidperiodes (1996-2001, 2201-2006 en 2006-2011) word gebruik om sodoende vergelykings te kan tref tussendie migrantevloei van beide hierdie periodes. Data wat betref beide inter-provinsiale migrasie (beweging oor provinsiale grense) sowel as intra-provinsiale migrasie (beweging binne provinsiale grense oor munisipale grense heen) word oorweeg. Bevindings: ‘n Vergelyking van die netto-migrasiekoers in beide provinsies gedurende die vroeër en later periodes, toon ‘n vertraging aan in beide interne en intra-provinsiale mobiliteit asook in verstedeliking, wat ‘n algemene vertraginging in die algemene migrasiestroom aandui. Te midde van variasie in die twee provinsies illustreer die data duidelike vestigingspatrone van migrante wat dui op volgehoue verstedeliking. Indien ouderdom en populasiegroep oorweeg word toon die data dat migrante meestal volwassenes tussen die ouderomme 20-29 jr is. Vergeleke met die ander populasie groepe is mobiliteit in die Swart populasie die hoogste binne inter-provisiale migrasiestrome teenoor die Kleurling populasie wat die hoogste mobiliteit binne intra-provinsiale migrasiestrome toon. Ten slotte lê die tesis ‘n argument voor wat aanvoer dat die bestuur van moontlike stremminge op ontwikkeling asook die ontsluit van moontlike ontwikkelingspotensiaal inherent tot migrasie, slegs moontlik is binne die raamwerk van ‘n doelbewuste strategie daarop gemik om die interaksie en assosiasie tussen migrasie en ontwikkeling in beleid en ontwikkelingsprosesse in te sluit.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103544
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