Urban water supply and demand management : a case study of Windhoek, Namibia

Mostert, Marelize (2017-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Water is essential to life. Historically, water is often seen as an infinite resource resulting in little attention being given to the sustainable use of water. The importance of sustainable water resource management has only become one of the top priorities in the recent century. Arid or semi-arid regions, characterised by low annual rainfall, large amounts of evaporation, overall low moisture levels and extreme variations of temperature, often experiences water scarcity. However, there are a number of factors that affect the availability and quality of water and thus water scarcity is not limited to semi-arid regions. The usage of water has already increased by twice the amount of the rate of population increase and half of the global population could be facing water shortage by 2030. The majority of the earth’s population resides in urban areas. Urbanisation and population growth is inevitable and therefore cities and municipal planners have to supply water to a constant growing society. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), thus forms an important part of spatial planning and every city needs to have some type of action plan for water supply and demand management. One of the cities in a developing world that has been facing water scarcity as a possible issue is Windhoek, the capital city of Namibia. Namibia, is the most arid country in Sub-Sahara Africa and experience drought on a regular basis. The population is expected to double within the next 20 years which means that the demand for water will increase as well. Despite the limited amount of water available Windhoek has, throughout its history, managed to expand and grow thus setting a good example for other cities, facing similar problems. Keywords and phrases: Arid-regions, Water Scarcity, Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), Climate change, urban growth, Windhoek.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Water is n’ noodsaaklik hulpbron wat dikwels beskou word as ‘n oneindige bron. Histories het die handhaafbare gebriuk van water in die agtergrond geval. Die noodslaaklikheid van volhoubaare water water bron bestuur het eers n prioritiete geword in die hudige eeu. Waterarm lande ervaar lae jaarlikse reenval vlakke, hoe water verdampings, min vogtigheid en gewoonluk ook ‘n groot variasie in temparatuur. Alhoewel daar is aanleidende omstandighede wat kan lei tot water tekorting, en dus is water tekortings nie beperk tot halfdor lande nie. Die gebruik van water het reeds twee maal hoer gestyg as die bevolkings groei en omtrent die helfte van die wêreld se populasie woon is stedeluke areas. Die helfte van die wêreld kan teen 2030 waterarm sal wees. Dit omhels dat stede en munisipaale beplanners water moet toesien aan n konstante groeiende populaasie. Integreurinde Water Bron Bestuuring is dus n belangruke elament van stads en streeks beplanning, elke stad het een of ander aksie plan nodig wat fokus op water voorsiening en aanvraag bestuur. Windhoek, hoofstad van Namibia, is een so stad, in n derdewerld land, wat lei onder water skaarsheid en water tekorting. Namibia is die droogste land in sub-sahara Afrika wat greeld lei onder droogte. Dit word verwag dat die populasie binne die volgende 20 jaar sal verdubble, wat beteken dat die aanvrag vir water ook sal verduble. Teen spyte van die beperkheid van water bronne, Windhoek kon deur die loop van geskidenis steeds onwikkel en uit sit, en kan dus as n goeie voorbeeld gesien word vir ander lande met soortgeleike proebleeme. Trefwoorde en frases: Dorheid, halfdor, water skaarste, intergreurende water bron bestuur, klimaat verandering, stedelike groei, Windhoek, Namibia.

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