The assessment of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae, grown on human faecal waste, as a protein source in broiler and layer diets

Van Schoor, Anton Lourens (2017-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae meal (BSF), grown on human waste, as a protein source in broiler and layer hen diets (10% inclusion level). For the broilers, the diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic, containing 10% pre-pupae meal. The potential of these (BSF) as a protein source in broiler diets were evaluated, along with the production parameters, carcass quality (physical and chemical), possible toxicities, feed safety and digestibility of the pre-pupae were investigated in broilers. Eight different processing treatment methods were used on the BSF in the broiler trials. The methods included: washed in water at 62°C for 30min (Trt1), 62°C for 60min (Trt2), 72°C for 5min (Trt3), 72°C for 15min (Trt4), 100°C for 2min (Trt5), 100°C for 5min (Trt6), rinsing in 5% propionic acid (Trt7) and rinsed in 5% formic acid (Trt8).The production trial indicated no treatment differences for cumulative feed intake and average daily gain (ADG). Treatment differences were observed between the BSF diets and the control, with the BSF diets achieving better results regarding feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), european protein efficiency factor (EPEF) and final live weight. The organ weights and the gut toxicity were measured. The analysis indicated no treatment differences with regards to the gut pH, organ weights and neither with the histomorphology of the duodenum and jejenum. No significant treatment differences were observed regarding the slaughter weight, breast muscle yield and the proximate analysis. However, significant differences were observed in the dressing percentage, with the control diet achieving higher dressing percentages than most of the BSF diets. The breast muscle of broilers receiving BSF diets produced meat that was redder than that of the control diet. Significant differences were observed between Trt2 and Trt8 with regards to pH of the meat (pH of 6.4 and 6.0 respectively). For the total tract digestibility study the following were evaluated: protein, fat, fiber, ash, amino acids and apparent metabolisable energy (AME). There were significant differences among all the treatments with regards to AME and the other nutrients. Trt1, Trt2, Trt3 and Trt5 had the highest coefficient of total tract digestibility (CTTD) over all the nutrients analysed. These treatments had CTTD's over 0.9 for crude protein and the essential amino acids. The layer trial only investigated four out of the initial eight treatment methods of the pre-pupae (Trt1, Trt3, Trt5 and Trt8), with two housing methods for each treatment (naturally ventilated and free range). The eggs were stored at room temperature at different time intervals before analysis: 1) the same day, 2) one day after collection, 3) one week later, 4) two weeks later and 5) one month later. The data collected were egg weight, shell weight, yolk weight, yolk colour and albumen height. The albumen height was used to determine the Haugh unit (HU). It was concluded that there were no significant differences between the dietary treatments with regards to shell weight, HU, shell thickness and colour. There were, however, observed differences between dietary treatments for egg weights and yolk weight. Trt3 house (naturally venitlated) differed significantly from the other treatments with regards to egg weight. While Trt3 house (naturally venitlated) and Trt5 house (naturally venitlated) differed significantly from the control group regarding yolk weight. It was observed that with increased storage time the quality of the eggs degraded (egg weight, yolk weight and HU). There were significant differences between treatments with regards to egg weight and yolk weight in storage group 1. There were also significant differences in storage group 2 as pertaining to egg weight, Trt3 house being significantly heavier than the other treatments except for Trt1 house. Trt1-3 free range also differed significantly from the other treatment groups. It can be concluded that BSF grown on human waste can successfully be used as a protein source in broiler and layer diets. Good production values along with carcasses of acceptable physical and chemical quality can be produced in broilers, with no measurable toxic effects. The BSF are also highly digestible irrespective of treatment. It was also concluded that eggs produced from diets containing BSF grown on human waste were still of good quality with no adverse effects to be found.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die effek van die verwerking van swart soldaat vlieg (Hermetia illucens) pre-papie meel te ondersoek (BSF), gegroei op menslike afval, as 'n proteïenbron in braaikuiken en lêhen dieet (10% insluiting vlak). Vir die braaikuikens, die dieet is ISO-stikstof en ISO-energiek, met 10% pre-papiemeel. Die potensiaal van hierdie (BSF) as 'n proteïenbron in braaikuiken dieet was geëvalueer, saam met die produksie parameters, karkasgehalte (fisiese en chemiese), moontlik toksisiteite, voer veiligheid en verteerbaarheid van die pre-papie is ondersoek in braaikuikens. Agt verskillende verwerkings metodes is gebruik op die BSFin die braaikuiken proewe. Om die voer veiligheid aan te spreek, was die agt behandeling metodes geëvalueer. Die metodes sluit in: gewas in water by 62°C vir 30min (Trt1), 62°C vir 60min (Trt2), 72°C vir 5min (Trt3), 72°C vir 15min (Trt4), 100°C vir 2min ( Trt5), 100°C vir 5min (Trt6), spoel in 5% propioonsuur- (Trt7) en afgespoel word 5% mieresuur (Trt8).Die produksie proef het geen behandeling verskille met betrekking tot kumulatiewe voerinname en gemiddelde daaglikse toename (GDT) aangedui nie. Behandeling verskille is waargeneem tussen die BSF dieet en die kontrole, met die BSF dieet wat beter resultate aandui met betrekking tot voer omskakelings verhouding (VOV), proteïen doeltreffendheid verhouding (PER), Europese proteïen doeltreffendheid faktor (EPEF) en finale lewendige gewig. Geen beduidende verskille tussen die BSF groepe is waargeneem in die onderskeie parameters nie. Die orgaan gewigte en die ingewande pH is gemeet. Die ontleding het aangedui geen behandeling verskille ten opsigte van die derm pH, orgaan gewigte en die histomorfologie van die duodenum en jejenum. Geen beduidende behandeling verskille is waargeneem met betrekking tot die slaggewig, bors spier opbrengs en die onmiddellike ontleding. Maar beduidende verskille is waargeneem in die uitslagpersentasie, met die kontrole dieet wat hoër uitslag persentasiebereik as die meerderheid van die BSF dieete. Die bors spiere van die braaikuikens wat BSF ontvang het het vleis produseer wat meer rooi as die kontrole dieet is. Beduidende verskille is waargeneem tussen Trt2 en Trt8 met betrekking tot pH van die vleis (pH van 6.4 en 6.0 onderskeidelik). Vir die totale sisteem verteerbaarheid studie is die volgende geëvalueer: proteïen, vet, vesel, as, aminosure en skynbare metaboliseerbare energie (AME). Daar was beduidende verskille tussen al die behandelings met betrekking tot AME en die ander voedingstowwe. Trt1, Trt2, Trt3 en Trt5 het die hoogste koëffisiënt van totale kanaal verteerbaarheid (CTTD) van al die voedingstowwe ontleed. Hierdie behandelings het 'n CTTD gehad oor 0.9 vir ru-proteïen en die essensiële aminosure. Die lêhen proef het net vier uit die aanvanklike agt behandeling metodes ondersoek, met pre-papies (Trt1, Trt3, Trt5 en Trt8) en twee behuisings metodes vir elke behandeling (natuurlik geventileerde en vryloop). Die eiers is gestoor by kamertemperatuur en op verskillende tydsintervalle geanaliseer: 1) op dieselfde dag, 2) 'n dag nadat versameling, 3) 'n week later, 4) twee weke later en 5) 'n maand later. Die data wat ingesamel was was eier gewig, dop gewig, eiergeel gewig, eier kleur en albumen hoogte. Die albumen hoogte is gebruik om die Haugh-eenheid (HU) te bepaal. Dit is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat daar geen beduidende verskille tussen die dieet behandelings met betrekking tot gewig, HU, dop dikte en dop kleur was nie. Daar was egter waargeneemde verskille tussen dieet behandelings met eier gewigte en die gewig van die eiergeel.Trt3 huis het beduidend verskil van die ander behandelings met betrekking tot eier gewig. Terwyl Trt3 huis en Trt5 huis beduidend verskil van die kontrole groep met betrekking tot eiergeel gewig. Dit is waargeneem dat met 'n verhoogde bergings tyd die gehalte van die eiers afneem (eier gewig, eiergeel gewig en HU). Daar was beduidende verskille tussen behandelings met betrekking tot eier gewig en eiergeel gewig in die stoor groep 1. Daar was ook beduidende verskille in die stoor groep 2 met betrekking tot eier gewig, Trt3 huis wat aansienlik swaarder as die ander behandelings behalwe vir Trt1 huis. Trt1-3 vryloop is beduidend verskillend van die ander behandeling groepe. Dit kan afgelei word dat BSF wat gegroei is op menslike afval suksesvol gebruik kan word as 'n proteïenbron in braaikuiken en lêhen dieete. Goeie produksie waardes saam met karkasse van aanvaarbare fisiese en chemiese kwaliteit kan geproduseer word in braaikuikens, met geen meetbare toksiese effekte. Die BSF is ook hoogs verteerbaar ongeag behandeling. Daar is ook bevind dat eiers wat BSF bevat en gegroei is op menslike afval steeds van goeie gehalte met geen newe-effekte geproduseer kan word.

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