Experiences and perceptions of life orientation teachers in guiding learners about nursing as a career of choice

Pedro, Yolandi Verna (2017-03)

Thesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : The challenge of nursing shortages in South Africa is increased by an ageing nursing workforce. A strategy to address the nursing shortages includes the promotion of nursing as a career of choice to high school learners. There seems to be an expectation that LO teachers will be able to promote this career field amongst the learners who are in their final year at secondary school level. It was thus necessary to explore their perceptions and experiences on guiding learners about nursing as a career of choice. The research question for this study was thus: “What are the experiences and perceptions of LO teachers on guiding learners about nursing as a career of choice?” A qualitative approach with a descriptive research design was applied. A purposive sample was drawn from a total population of 355 LO teachers in the Western Cape, from schools situated in low and high socio-economic residential areas, public to private schools. The Health Research Ethics Committee of Stellenbosch University gave ethics approval S14/04/093 (Appendix 2) for the study. Interviews were guided with an interview guide, audio taped and then transcribed verbatim. Trustworthiness of the study was assured by applying the criteria of Lincoln and Guba: credibility, conformability, dependability and transferability which included affirmation of the transcriptions, member-checking through validation by the supervisors and the use of experts in nursing research and methodology. Data was collected and captured by the researcher. The data was analysed according to Tesch’s open-coding system, with themes and subthemes that were described. The findings of the study included: not enough time was allocated for career guidance in LO; both public and private schools still differ in their ability to expose learners to careers; that decision making about a career choice was influenced by not only teachers but other significant others; that there was a decline in the number of learners interested in nursing; that the teachers have a lack of knowledge about nursing in general and that they are not necessarily the ideal people to promote nursing career pathways, as they have to consider many other career fields and have no specific loyalty towards promoting the nursing profession; they were also influenced by negative media reporting about nursing and by the general community, including those who find themselves in this career field . Recommendations based on the scientific evidence include LO in the form of career guidance, which forms the ideal platform to promote nursing as a career of choice to learners; a structured job shadowing programme should be developed by the different stake holders, such as the Department of Education, Department of Health and Department of Labour and policy makers in the nursing profession. Trends and demands in the job market, especially acknowledgement of the global shortage of nurses play a crucial role in the career guidance of learners at high school level.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die uitdaging van ‘n tekort aan verpleegsters in Suid-Afrika word vererger deur ‘n ouer-wordende werkersmag. ‘n Strategie om die tekort aan verpleegsters aan te spreek, sluit in die bevordering van verpleging as ‘n beroepskeuse vir hoerskoolleerders. Daar is die verwagting dat Lewensorienteringonderwysers hierdie beroepskeuse onder leerders wat in hul finale jaar op sekondere skoolvlak is, sal kan bevorder. Dit was dus nodig om onderwysers se persepsies en ervaringe in hul begeleiding aan leerders aangaande verpleging as ‘n beroepskeuse te ondersoek Die navorsingsvraag vir hierdie studie was dus: “Wat is die ervaringe en persepsies van Lewensorienteringonderwysers se begeleiding aan leerders oor verpleging as ‘n beroepskeuse?” ‘n Kwalitatiewe benadering met ‘n beskrywende navorsingsontwerp is toegepas. ‘n Doelbewuste steekproef is uit ‘n totale bevolking van 355 Lewensorienteringonderwysers in die Weskaap vanaf skole in lae en hoe sosio-ekonomiese woongebiede tot privaatskole geneem. Die Gesondheidnavorsingsetiekkomitee aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch het etiese goedkeuring, S14/04/093 (Bylaag 2) vir die navorsingstudie verleen. Onderhoude is na aanleiding van die onderhoudgidsvrae gevoer, dis op band geneem en woordeliks getranskribeer. Betroubaarheid van die studie was verseker deur die kriteria van Lincoln en Guba se norme van geloofwaardigheid, ooreenkomstigheid, afhanklikheid en oordraagbaarheid toe te pas om die transkripsies te bevestig; deur studieleiers se bevestiging van deelnemers se response en die van vakkundiges in verpleegnavorsing en metodologie in te sluit. Data was gekollekteer en deur die navorser vasgele. Data is geanaliseer volgens die oopkoderingsisteem van Tesch, en met temas en subtemas beskryf. Die bevindinge van die studie sluit in: onvoldoende tyd word toegeken aan beroepsvoorligting in die aanbieding van Lewensorientering; beide openbare en privaatskole verskil steeds in hul vermoe om leerders bloot te stel aan beroepe; dat besluitneming oor ‘n beroepskeuse nie net deur onderwysers beinvloed word nie, maar ook deur geliefdes; dat daar ‘n afname in die aantal leerders is wat in verpleging belangstel; dat die onderwysers ‘n gebrek aan kennis oor verpleging oor die algemeen het en dat hulle nie noodwendig die ideale mense is om die verpleegberoep as beroepskeuse te bevorder nie, want hulle moet soveel ander beroepsmoontlikhede oorweeg en het geen spesifieke lojaliteite om dit te bevorder nie; hulle word ook beinvloed deur negatiewe mediaverslaggewing oor verpleging en deur die algemene gemeenskap, insluitende diegene wat hul in die beroep bevind. Aanbevelings gebaseer op wetenskaplike bewyse sluit in Lewensorientering, in die vorm van beroepsvoorligting wat die ideale platform is om verpleging aan leerders as ‘n beroepskeuse te bevorder. ‘n Gestruktureerde skadudiensprogram behoort deur die verskillende rolspelers soos die Departement van Onderwys, die Departement van Gesondheid, die Departement van Arbeid en beleidbepalers van die Verplegingsberoep ontwikkel te word. Tendense en eise in die arbeidsmark, veral erkenning van die wereldwye tekort aan verpleegsters, speel ‘n kritieke rol in die leerders se beroepsvoorligting op sekondere skoolvlak.

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