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Material and energy flow analysis of the Malawian tea industry

dc.contributor.authorTaulo, J. L.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSebitosi, A. B.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-16T07:57:01Z
dc.date.available2017-02-16T07:57:01Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.citationTaulo, J. L. & Sebitosi, A. B. Material and energy flow analysis of the Malawian tea industry. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56:1337–1350, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.072
dc.identifier.issn1364-0321 (online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.072
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100633
dc.descriptionCITATION: Taulo, J. L. & Sebitosi, A. B. Material and energy flow analysis of the Malawian tea industry. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56:1337–1350, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.11.072.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper briefly reviews the material and energy flows of the Malawian tea industry, in order to identify opportunities and reduce its environmental impacts. The review also details the concept and methodology as well as studies on applications of material and energy flow analysis. Environmental impacts are calculated with a life cycle assessment approach, using CML methodology. Results indicate that green leaf consumption in the studied factories ranged from 4.19 to 6.33 kg green leaf/kg made tea (MT), with an average of 4.96 kg per kg of made tea compared to 4.5 and 4.66 kg green leaf for tea factories in Kenya and Sri Lanka, respectively. Average wood consumption in Malawian tea factories is 3.35 kg/kg made tea and specific water consumption ranged from 1.92 to 8.32 kg/kg MT. In addition, the average value of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for eight factories is 4.32 kg of CO2-eq/kg MT as compared to 2.27 and 2.7 kg CO2-eq/kg in similar factories in Kenya and Sri Lanka, respectively. The major sources emitting GHG are from boiler fuel combustion and stand-by diesel power generation system. The study indicates that global warming has the highest environmental impact (88%), followed by acidification (6%) and eutrophication (2%), whereas human toxicity is lowest (<1%). The findings demonstrate how MEFA provides early recognition of environmental problems and how it can be used to establish priorities for improving operations in the existing factories.en_ZA
dc.description.urihttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115013398
dc.format.extent26 pagesen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherElsevieren_ZA
dc.subjectTea industryen_ZA
dc.subjectTea trade -- Malawien_ZA
dc.subjectTea industry -- Exports -- Malawien_ZA
dc.subjectTea -- Processingen_ZA
dc.titleMaterial and energy flow analysis of the Malawian tea industryen_ZA
dc.typeArticleen_ZA
dc.description.versionPost print
dc.rights.holderElsevieren_ZA


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